Well, anyway, here's the first few years of the TL.
In the United States, the Bureau of Indian Affairs is formed on March 11th, allowing for better communication between Native Americans and the American government.
A major revolt of the Chumash people occurs in Mexican California after an incident involving a young boy visiting relatives in the La Purisima area. It only lasts three days but causes a large amount of damage.
During the month of May, the British seize the Burmese city of Rangoon.
On Sept. 16th, Charles X is elevated to the French throne after his elder brother, Louis XVIII, passes away in the Palais de Louvre in Paris.
In November, the 1824 U.S. federal election will become one of the most controversial in that nation's history, tying up electoral procedures for weeks after. The courts eventually decide in favor of John Q. Adams, which greatly upsets many Jacksonians. As a compensatory measure, the fervently right-wing former Secretary of War from South Carolina, John C. Calhoun, becomes Vice-President.
Shortly before James Monroe leaves office, the Creeks of Georgia (reluctantly) sign away the last of their property rights to the U.S. government and proceed to move west to Alabama and Mississippi. John Q. Adams is then inaugurated as the 6th President of the United States on March 4th.
On April 17th, Charles X of France grudingly recognizes Haiti as an independent nation, but also demands the payment of 150 million gold Francs as a down payment.
On May 26th, an interesting historical coincidence occurs when two separate Unitarian organizations, the American Unitarian Association and the British and Foreign Unitarian Association, in Boston, Mass., and in the English county of Essex, respectively, on the same date.
An interesting discovery occurs in the South Pacific on the 30th of July, when the captain of the HMS Blonde, the 7th Lord Byron, a cousin of the renowned poet, happens upon a currently uninhabited island, which is named after the navigator, Lt. Charles Malden.
In Great Britain, the Panic of 1825 begins after the shenanigans of the infamous Scottish adventurer, Gregor MacGregor, cause a serious problem in the British banking system.
In October, the Erie Canal is opened for business. It will later become a crucial link in the chain of American international trade.
On July 4th, the 50th anniversary of American independence passes with both former Presidents Thomas Jefferson and John Adams dying on the exact same day.
During the month of May, Daniel Webster decides to decline running for office upon hearing of the imminent retirement of Elijah Hunt. He instead opts to continue practicing law, but wishes his fellow Federalist the best of luck in the coming years[and this is the initial Point of Divergence].
Also, on July 6th, the Treaty of London ends the Greek War of Independence, with the Ottoman Empire now forced to recognize Greece as an independent nation.
George Canning, Prime Minister of the U.K., dies on August 8th. F.J. Robinson, the Lord Liverpool, is chosen as his successor.
American mystic Joseph Smith has a vision in which he is handed golden plates by an angel by the name of Moroni, on September 22nd.
Henry Clay, the American statesman, decides, on April 7th, to try to convince the dying Federalist Party to run for one last election, and the next evening, begins to write to several compatriots, informing them of his plans. Some decline, but others are more willing, and they agree on the date of May 30th to hold a convention in Baltimore, Maryland; amongst the attendees, is Daniel Webster, the former Massachusetts Congressman.....[this is the first significant Point of Divergence].
Sometime between July and September 1828, a typhoon kills about 10,000 people on the Japanese island of Kyushu.
The 1828 elections were held in the United States in November. It was a close and rather heated race, but Henry Clay proves to be a vital spoiler, siphoning off just over 100,000 votes, and winning the states of Maryland and Delaware(though by only about 35% of the total vote each).....though the real effects could be felt in New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio; it was Clay's vote that tipped the scales in those states, giving Adams a narrow edge in all three(though two electors cast their votes for Jackson in protest)....Adams also won 4 electoral votes in Virginia and 2 in Kentucky, along with 2 in Indiana and even one of Illinois's 3 electoral votes. But unlike in 1824, Adams had an actual popular vote advantage over Jackson, taking 575,000 to his 532,000. Though many Jacksonians began to decry what would later be labelled the “Second Corrupt Bargain”, there was no changing the fact that Adams had won, and under more believable circumstances this time.
Also in December, a young Hungarian inventor named Anyos Jedlik creates a tiny device powered by direct electric currents; it is considered to be the first electric motor ever built[as in the real world as well].
In the U.K., the signing of the Catholic Relief Act on April 13th, allows for some emancipation of Catholics from within Ireland.
On May 15th, American mystic Joseph Smith claims to receive a visit from John the Baptist, receiving the mantle of what he described as the “Aaronic Priesthood”.
On June 3rd, the Swan River Colony is founded in western Australia, which helps finalize Britain's claims to the continent.
On July 22nd, William Burt receives a patent for the very first typewriter, or “typographer”, as he calls it, from the U.S. federal government[a day earlier than in our world]. Some of these early machines will become known as “Burtographers” after the man who invented them.
On October 9th, the Rocket steam locomotive wins the Rainhill Trials, in Lancashire in Britain.
The Welland Canal in Ontario opens in November, and is intended as a British alternative to the American Erie Canal.
And here is the situation in the 1830's. Butterflies are a bit minimal here, but they do begin to take off eventually.
On March 26th, the Book of Mormon is published in Palmyra, New York. It garners a significant amount of interest in New York and Joseph Smith's home state of Vermont, but it also sparks concern in neighboring Pennsylvania as well as much of New England outside of Vermont. About a week and a half later, on April 6th, Smith establishes his first church of the Latter Day Saints.
On May 29th, the Indian Removal Act fails to survive a veto from President Adams. This angers many more conservative Southerners, including John C. Calhoun, the notorious South Carolina senator.
On June 26th, George IV of the United Kingdom dies. His brother succeeds him as William IV.
The bloody Paris Uprising occurs on July 26th, after Charles X issues a decree known as the “Ordinances of Saint-Cloud”, which effectively puts France under an early form of the police state. The attempt to force Charles X off the throne fails, but it does allow for further actions in the country to occur.
The city of Brussels is taken by Belgian nationalists on September 27th, during the War of Belgian Independence.
Inspired by the uprising in Paris, a similar event takes place in Warsaw, Russian Poland, on November 15th[2 weeks earlier than in our world]
On New Year's Day, William Garrison, a budding young abolitionist, starts to publish “The Liberator”, an anti-slavery periodical, in Boston, Massachusetts.
A major revolt begins in Bosnia over the abolition of the Ayan system in late March.
The slave rebellion headed by Nat Turner paralyzes much of the American state of Virginia, beginning in late August. It ends with the execution and/or imprisonment of over two hundred slaves[as in the real world]
Also in August, the Dutch Ten Days' Campaign against Belgium is called off after French partisans fighting against Charles X threaten to intervene on behalf of the Belgians.
On September 7th, a failed attempt to take Warsaw ends with the death of the Russian general Ivan Paskevich; but also, with the destruction of much of the city. This is considered to be the peak of the Polish Uprising, which gradually winds down over the next 2 years.
During the month of February, a terrible cholera outbreak ravages the United Kingdom, killing thousands, as many as 3,000 in London alone. It spreads to France and North America by the end of the year, claiming thousands more lives.
In the month of April, the Black Hawk War begins in the United States.
On June 6th, the bloody June Rebellion starts when the French Army opens fire on demonstrating students in Paris. Many of the students fight back, some with guns. News of the unprovoked attack sparks a massive outcry in much of the country, and leads to more widespread, and more constant rebellion. [the real world uprising occurred under Louis-Phillipe, and failed]
In early August, the Bad Axe Massacre in Wisconsin proves to be the last major Native American resistance against European settlement east of the Mississippi River.
On December 8th, Martin Van Buren wins by a large margin in a surprisingly modest campaign season against the Federalist Candidate, Henry Clay. The winning motto: “Any One But Adams. Vote Van Buren”.
On April 6th, Charles X is forced to flee Paris after Army personnel opposed to his rule capture the city.
In Mexican Texas, a convention is held on April 10th, for the reason of requesting Mexico to provide more civil liberties to the settlers. Mexican President Santa Anna refuses.
On June 5th, a young Ada Lovelace is introduced to Charles Babbage. The famous inventor's life is permanently changed by this chance meeting.
On the anniversary of the June Rebellion, a provisional government is set up in Paris.
What would become the city of Chicago, Illinois, is settled on August 12th.
The Carlist War breaks out in Spain on September 29th, following the death of Ferdinand VII.
October 4th, sees the coronation of Louis Phillipe, Duke of Orleans, supported by many moderates in the hope that France's social condition will improve.
On the 14th of December, a young man named Kasper Hauser, claiming to be the son of nobility, is murdered in Germany. Many years later, his death will inspire a number of novels, and even a play.
The town of York, Upper Canada, is renamed Toronto on March 6th, a name that it keeps to the present day[as in the real world] On March 27th, American Vice-President Andrew Jackson is censured by the U.S. Congress.
On June 7th, Theodoros Kolokotronis is convicted of treason for his opposition to the rule of Otto I in Greece.
Slavery is abolished in the British Empire on the 1st of August, causing many to rejoice from New York City to London and back.
Sir Robert Peel, the creator of the world's first official police force, is elected Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on December 10th.
In March, American inventor Thomas Davenport demonstrates a small electric vehicle model he had constructed the year prior. It's nothing more than a curiosity, but does help provide later inspiration.
In July, the Catholic Apostolic Church is founded in the United Kingdom.
What becomes known as the “Ragamuffin War” by some more humor-inclined historians begins in Brazil on September 20th.
On October 2nd, a major battle erupts in Mexican Texas, in the town of Gonzales, over the seizure of a cannon. This eventually provides the impetus for the 'Texians', as they are called, to declare independence.
James Pratt and John Smith, two British gay men convincted of buggery, are hanged on November 27th. Thankfully, however, they are the last two to be executed for such in the United Kingdom.
On February 24th, Samuel Colt files a patent for what he calls a “revolver” pistol; the weapon later becomes a major success and is eventually elevated to cultural status in America and other places. Also, on this same day, the Texians begin to occupy the Alamo in San Antonio[these two events occurred a day later and a day earlier than in our world, respectively].
The Battle of the Alamo occurs in San Antonio in Texas on March 6th. The large majority of the defenders die in the fighting. William B. Travis, the head of the commanding forces, is injured, but survives, and later, when the opprotunity arises, escapes the Goliad Massacre, so that he may fight another day[in our world, Travis died at the Alamo, fighting to the end].
On April 21st, the Battle of San Jacinto ends with Mexican President Santa Anna, surprisingly, losing. William Travis makes a last minute appearance towards the end, and afterwards, is given a hero's welcome.
In June, the British scientist, Charles Darwin, leaves on a scientific voyage that takes him across much of Africa in search of new discoveries to make. He returns to England on October 2nd.
On September 11th, the Riograndense Republic is officially proclaimed in southern Brazil.
On December 28th, the colony of South Australia is founded by John Hindmarsh. Also, Spain finally recognizes Mexico's sovereignty on this day.
On March 4th, Martin Van Buren is re-inaugurated for a second term as President of the United States.
On May 10th, the markets crash in New York City, sparking the first series of economic problems which will culminate in the Panic of 1837.....
June 20th, sees the ascension of Victoria I to the throne in Great Britain. She will rule for 61 years and 10 months before her death.
An important milestone in British regal history occurs, as the seat of royalty moves from St James's Palace to Buckingham Palace in Kensington, on July 13th.
The French capture Constantine, Algeria, on October 13th, after only three days of fighting.
On November 7th, anti-slavery activist Elijah Lovejoy is murdered by a pro-slavery mob in Alton, Illinois.
November 9th, sees the beginning of the Canadian Rebellion, led by Louis-Joseph Papineau, and William Lyon McKenzie[three days later than in reality].
An interesting meteorological milestone occurs on January 21st, when a temperature of -76 degrees Fahrenheit is recorded in the Siberian town of Yakutsk. This is the first time that a confirmed record of a lowest temperature has ever been produced.
On April 22nd, Isambard Brunel completes the first ever transoceanic voyage of a commercial steam ship. He later creates a successful ferrying business around such.
On April 30th, Nicaragua breaks away from the United Provinces of Central America. A month later, this leads to the country's complete dissolution.
William and Grace Darling, a father and daughter pair of lighthouse keepers, rescue a small number of survivors from a capsized ship off the coast of Northumberland in September.
October 27th, sees the attempt by Missouri governor Lilburn W. Boggs to eliminate the presence of Mormons in his state.
In December, the Pastry War, which will later be regarded as one of the most trivial conflicts in Western history, not to mention one of the most embarrassing disasters for the French military, begins when the French try to seize the port of Veracruz.
At some point during this year, in a fascinating turn of events, the isolated Pitcairn Islands, in the South Pacific, becomes the first place in the world in which women are able to obtain, and hold, suffrage.
On January 6th, the highly unusual event that will be known as the “Big Wind” occurs in Ireland; wind gusts of as high as 185 km/h(about 115 mph) are reported, along with heavy rains. Several hundred people were killed, and three and a half dozen ships were also lost.
The French military pulls out of Mexico on March 9th, having been humiliated. As a seeming gesture of generosity, however, Santa Anna allows 50,000 pesos to be paid to one Msr. Remontel, the man whose claims started the whole conflict.
On April 19th, the Kingdom of Belgium is formally established as a sovereign nation.
May 12th, sees the end of the Carlist Wars in Spain, with a Liberal victory.
The American explorer, Charles Wilkes, discovers land in eastern Antarctica. The find helps prove that Antarctica is indeed a continent, and because of this, the area is eventually named in his honor.
In February, the Lower Canada Rebellion finally ends. However, though, few concessions are given to the Canadians, London feeling that they need to prove themselves. Because of this, responsible government is not granted at this juncture.
On April 17th, Joseph Smith, Sr. the father of the now well-known American mystic, dies in his home.
Natchez, Mississippi, was struck by a tornado on the afternoon of May 7th; 332 people were killed, and as many as 1,800 others were injured, as the storm devastated Natchez and several other towns along the Mississippi River. [amazingly enough, the injury count from the real world tornado was far lower; only 109, in fact!]
In late May, New Zealand becomes an official British colony.
On July 21st, Upper and Lower Canada are renamed to Canada West and Canada East, respectively.
On September 16th, the first public park in England is opened in Derbyshire.
Willem II becomes King of the Netherlands on October 7th, taking the place of his deceased father.
The 1840 Presidential elections are held in the United States. The fledgling Whig Party, under the ticket of Daniel Webster/William P. Mangum, tries to make a honest effort, but ultimately wins only Delaware by a clear majority. Democratic candidate Winfield Scott won most of the South, but could not regain his previous popularity up north. It was the candidate of the recently revived Federalists, Henry Clay, that ultimately won the election, banking on his status as a moderate and also stating his willingness to remedy the causes of the Panic of 1837.
On December 7th, David Livingstone begins a journey to Africa, which will last many years.
On March 11th, the S.S. President survives a close call in the waters of the North Atlantic. Her captain, Richard Roberts, is able to steer the ship to Liverpool, where he is lauded as a hero after telling his tale.
In the Republic of Texas, a firefight breaks out over a property dispute on April 17th; amongst those killed was the brother of the former mayor of San Antonio, and former Vice-President of Texas under Sam Houston, Juan N. Seguin.
On June 2nd, Cherokee Indians clash with federal authorities over land rights in Georgia.
July 11th sees the death of David Wilkie, the Scottish painter. In his honor, a gallery will be erected in Aberdeen on the 8th anniversary of his death, by a fan of his.
On February 27th, former Texian Vice-President Juan Seguin confronts the man whom he believes killed his brother. The man denied doing the deed, and demanded that Seguin prove the allegation. What happened after this is generally not known, but what is, is that only Seguin emerges alive. Seguin then is forced to flee to Mexico, eventually ending up in Alta California.
In April, an ill-fated mission to claim New Mexico for Texas, ends up with over 100 Texians dead.
In the month of June, local political tensions in Rhode Island over limited suffrage for eligible citizens finally boil over when Thomas Dorr and some allies try to seize a federal arsenal building in Providence.
On July 11th, Richard Owen coins the term Dinosauria to describe a certain type of large reptilian creature that lived on Earth until about 65 million years ago.
The Webster-Ashburton Treaty was signed on September 2nd, permanently establishing the borders between currently British (and later independent) Canada and the U.S.
On October 29th, a rare hurricane struck the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula with winds in excess of 100 miles per hour near the eye of the storm.
The famous American general, and one time Presidential candidate, William Henry Harrison, dies in his home in Indiana on November 9th. His funeral is attended by over 10,000 people, including the current President, Henry Clay.
On December 29th, William Darling, the British lighthouse keeper locally known for his heroic 1838 rescue of the passengers of a sinking ship, dies at his post. To honor him, over 2,000 people across Northumberland attend his funeral. His daughter Grace inherits the post, and continues her work for another 55 years.
On March 8th, the government of Denmark re-establishes the Althing of Iceland, to the approval of many.
Stendhal, the French writer, dies in his sleep on March 23rd.
Marc Brunel opens the first underwater tunnel in London, England, on March 25th.
On July 20th, a major uprising in Greece occurs after King Otto refuses to allow reforms to the country's political system. When the protests persist, he sends in his royal guards to disperse the protesters, which sparks a brief but important period of unrest. On Sept. 17th, Otto is assassinated while in Athens. His wife, Amalia of Wittenburg, becomes queen in his place.
On November 3rd, a group of Americans are caught engaging in suspicious behavior in the Mexican state of Nuevo Leon. Instead of being deported to Texas, however, they are all taken to the notorious Perote Prison....where some are later executed. This horrifies many in the States and Henry Clay demands an apology from Mexico City. Santa Anna, however, refuses.
In February, Queen Amalia of Greece agrees to a temporary government, one that is set up until the country can permanently solve it's problems.
Tensions between the United States and Mexico worsen during the month of April when several skirmishes occur between Mexican troops and Anglo settlers in Alta California.
On June 27th, Joseph Smith and Brigham Young are both murdered in Carthage, Illinois, by an angry mob. John Taylor, a close confidant of Smith's, is wounded, but survives. Taylor will, eventually, direct the remaining Mormons westward.
In July, a conflict occurs in British Canada after a Catholic man is arrested on dubious charges of aiding and abetting crimes against the state in Ottawa, Canada West. Dozens of protesters, both Protestant and Anglo, appear outside a local courthouse on July 7th, demanding that the man in question be released. He is not, and the protesters are ordered to disperse. Some do, but many do not; as a result, a riot breaks out in the area and some of the protestors end up wounded, with at least four dead. The Ottawa Uprising that follows, takes nearly a full month to put down completely, and many in London are becoming increasingly concerned about the potential for widespread violence in the whole region.
On August 28th, two German economists by the name of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels meet in Paris[as in the real world]. They soon strike up a friendship, and begin to collaborate on works together.
On September 12th, a Mexican platoon attacks a group of Texian sentries just south of San Antonio, sparking a rather low-key but still noticeable conflict between the two nations[similar to the conflicts that occurred after the failed Somervell Expedition in our reality's 1841]. The United States is becoming increasingly involved in the affair, and many begin to worry that war may soon be imminent.
The small town of San Ysidro, in Alta California, is attacked by Santa Anna's forces on November 27th, after reports of seditious activity are made. Amongst the dead are two dozen American citizens; Washington sternly warns Mexico City to back off, but Santa Anna again brushes off the warning.
In December, Henry Clay is re-elected for a second term as President of the United States. Also, in this same month, a revolt breaks out in the Mexican state of Zacatecas.
On March 17th, a fire fueled by unusually dry weather, wrecks a good portion of Pittsburgh, Penn., killing 20.
On April 22nd, Mexico withdraws from Texas to deal with rebel activity in the Californias, Zacatecas, and the Yucatan, signing a temporary cease fire.
On May 25th, a Mexican cavalry group is called out to dispatch a small group of Texians & Americans operating on the border, assisting the Yucatan rebels. The accused flee and are tracked all the way to Louisiana. After finding their position on May 27th, one of the cavalry officers, for reasons unknown even in the modern era, gives the order to charge them, crossing the bridge separating La. from Texas and eventually come across an American military post, which they destroy. President Clay feels that his hand has been forced, and on May 30th, declares war on Mexico, officially starting the Mexican-American War.
July 17th, sees a meeting hosted by the American Texas Society in Austin, to discuss whether or not the country should join the United States. Due to the hostilities erupting elsewhere, the meeting goes nowhere, but the society will meet again several times over the next two years.
In Ireland, farmers begin to discover that their potato yields are beginning to drop dramatically, during the month of September.....the Potato Famine has begun.
On April 17th, following much in the way of noise making, the Republic of California officially declares its secession from Santa Anna's Mexico. Two days later, a new flag design is unveiled, that of a bear on the top center, with a green star and a red bottom, with the words “California Republic” in black[much like the real world 1846 flag]. John C. Fremont is inaugurated as the nation's first president.
The Mexican government begins their campaign against California in earnest on June 7th, when they make a move for San Diego. Many in the small town of 3,000 people have no firearms of their own, but some are loaned weapons by American mercenaries. It also helps that Santa Anna's men don't exactly have the best supply lines as of yet.
On July 13th, former Missourian politician turned soldier Thomas H. Benton dies just outside of San Antonio, Texas, killed by a Mexican cannonball.
July 22nd sees the raid of Corpus Christi, Texas, in which most of the town of 2,200 is razed, then torched by Santa Anna's men. 180 of the city's residents are killed by these actions, which infuriates many Texians.
On September 11th, the government of the French Second Republic offers some volunteer logistical support to the Americans, in a show of solidarity.
The Mexicans try to capture both Houston and Galveston, Texas, but fail, on November 9th. This is a major turning point in the war, and combined with recent defeats in California, revolts begin to break out again in Mexico.
On the morning of December 22nd, a letter arrives in Washington, from Austin, Texas, asking for the United States to annex the nation. The motion goes to Congress that afternoon, and Henry Clay approves the resolution. One week later, President Clay officially approves the annexation of Texas into the Union.
Californian forces drive the invading Mexicans out of the small town of Santa Cruz on January 28th, following 2 weeks of heavy fighting. The front progressively collapses all the way back down to Hunter's Gulch[near the real world Bakersfield, Calif.], by the end of February, and the Mexicans make no more gains in California, as more and more troops are being drawn in to deal with the increasingly destructive rebels, particularly those in the Yucatan and Coahuila. On February 27th, the Americans, with assistance from secessionist rebels, defeat a Mexican army of 20,000 near Buena Vista, Coahuila.
Henry M. Lawrence, a British educator, founds the Sanawar School in India on April 12th; it is the first mixed-sex boarding school ever created.
On April 27th, American General Winfield Scott lands near Veracruz in an attempt to take the city. The fighting goes on for almost 2 weeks, but the Americans emerge victorious, and the Mexican line of defense collapses further.
On May 19th, Mexican General Adrian Woll surrenders in Sonora after Californian militias and American troops defeat his men in an intense battle just north of Hermosillo.
June 28th sees the Battle of Hidalgo just outside of Mexico City, led by General Winfield Scott, and aided by Brigadier General Jefferson Davis.
The former American colony of Liberia gains its independence on July 26th; news of this development proves to be promising in the eyes of many black Americans, including those still stuck in slavery. Three days later, Frederick Douglass, a freedman already becoming famous in abolitionist circles, expresses sympathy for the Liberians, but raises a skeptical view on the idea of sending blacks there to gain their freedom; in his view, the evils of slavery, and even racism in general, would be best addressed if black Americans who wanted to stay in the country would be allowed to do so, and be given a say in their own affairs[much as in the real world].
On July 28th, Winfield Scott's men enter the communal limits of Mexico City; having been bested by the Americans, Santa Anna's top active general, Mariano Zurita, surrenders on the evening of July 30th, ending the Mexican-American War. However, though, Santa Anna himself fled the city the night before Scott's intrusion, and will remain at large for some time.
Despite the end of the official hostilities, however, some Mexican units will continue occasional fighting for months afterwards.
On August 10th, not knowing the war has ended, Mexican Lt. General Luis Pardihas attempts to raid an American garrison at Culiacan; the two day siege fails, however, and Pardihas is shot a week after it's end by anti-Santanista[those opposed to Santa Anna's rule, that is] forces, dying of his injuries on the 19th.
The Republican Party is created in the United States in the small town of Sterling, Ill., on September 2nd.
A September 27th attack on another American garrison near Puebla also fails.
During the fall of 1847, the Bronte sisters will publish their first two major works, though under pseudonyms[as in the real world].
In February, the last battle by Mexican troops against Americans takes placee in the Yucatan, just south of Merida. Also, Antonio de Santa Anna is captured on the 27th, just outside of a small village in Potosi. A day later, the Treaty of Mexico City not only gives all of Mexico north of the 33rd parallel to the Americans, but it also results in the creation of several independent states in what was the north of the country; Rio Grande, Tamaulipas, Nueva Vizcaya, and Durango, as well as the Yucatan in the east. The status of Sonora and Baja California will remain unclear for some time, however.
On April 12th, the state of East Texas is admitted to the Union. West Texas will remain a territory for about a decade afterwards, however.
The provisional Mexican government under Francisco Bustamante ratifies the Mexico City Treaty, on April 27th,
Protests occur in Transylvania over the region's annexation to Hungary throughout the latter half of April and all of May. On May 15th, the response to one demonstration results in the deaths of two dozen people.
In June, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels finish writing their epic scholarly tome, The Communist Manifesto. They submit a copy of their final manuscript to a small publisher in London for review[In our universe, the book was published on Feb. 21, 1848].
Sometime in July, Swiss immigrant & mill owner John Sutter discovers gold in northern California, driving many to settle in the region, including many Americans[In our world, Sutter didn't *discover* the gold, but he did still own a small mill nearby as ITTL; the OTL state capital of Sacramento was originally named “Sutter's Mill”, after the property].
On August 19th, John C. Fremont, President of the Republic of California, announces that he will be retiring in February of the next year. Speculation begins to develop around who exactly plans to replace Fremont, called the “First Citizen” by many.
On Sept. 12th, the Swiss Federal Constitution goes into effect, creating one of the first modern democracies in all of Europe. ' 1848 U.S. elections- Daniel Webster, the elder statesman from Massachusetts, wins the White House as a Whig in a race versus William Brownlow, the former Democratic governor of Tennessee. Webster will be the only Whig to ever successfully win office in the U.S.
On December 21st, the French island of Reunion eliminates slavery, to inaugurate a program to eliminate slavery by 1 January, 1853, initiated by the new government of the Second Republic.
The Punjab region becomes a British protectorate on February 22nd.
Daniel Webster becomes the first U.S. president to be photographed, in Boston, Mass., on April 9th.[in our world, that honor went to James K. Polk, shortly before the inauguration of his successor, Zachary Taylor.]
Despite significant opposition from free trade advocates, the British Parliament narrowly votes to keep the Corn Laws in effect, on June 2nd.
On July 7th, the wife of Edgar Allan Poe, the famous poet, dies of a terrible illness in Baltimore, Maryland. Her death is widely noted by many a major paper from Savannah to Boston and back.
On August 7th, David Rice Atchison, the President pro tem of the U.S. Senate, resigns after being caught up in a major financial scandal. Three months later, he will be assassinated in Kansas City, Missouri, by a furious stockbroker.
The transportation of convicts directly to Western Australia begins on 9 Sept. of this year, with the first convicts landing in New Perth[basically the OTL Perth, W.A.].
Two months after his wife's tragic death, Edgar Allan Poe commits suicide in Washington D.C., on September 27th. Also, on this day, Denmark becomes a constitutional monarchy[June 5th in the real world].
Lajos Batthyany, the Hungarian reformist nobleman, is executed on October 7th, in Budapest, along with Istvan Szechenyi. Batthyany's wife flees to England, and then the United States, with her three children.
Anne Bronte and two of her siblings, Emily and Branwell fall seriously ill with influenza during the fall of this year. Emily survives; Branwell does not, and leaves behind two children, Branwell, Junior, and Mary Anne.
On November 19th, Joszef Bem, the Polish-Hungarian general, dies in Debrecen, Hungary, on his way to a self-imposed exile in Aleppo.
On December 6th, the government of Hungary agrees to begin crucial social and economic reforms. Also, on this day, the Taiping Rebellion begins in southern China.
On May 22nd, a hippopotamus named “Obaysch” is brought to the London Zoo from the Nile; it's the first such animal to be spotted in Europe since the days of the Roman Empire.
On July 9th, the founder of Babism, Sayyid `Alí Muhammad Shirazi, is executed by the Persian government for heresy; the religion will linger on until the 1880s in Ottoman Turkey, where the last believer dies. The Bahai movement that was inspired by it, however, will last to the present day.
On September 17th, the Lyttelton colony is founded in British New Zealand.
Johann Coaz, a young Swiss amateur mountaineer, tries to claim the Piz Bernina mountain in Switzenland in October, but fails. Three years later, he will die of pneumonia while trying to climb another mountain, Piz Corvatsch.
On November 9th, Edward May, an Indiana State Senator, gives an impassioned speech in favor of granting suffrage to African-American citizens. Two years later, the state government votes in favor of a bill allowing for just that(albeit, causing some hardcore conservatives to protest, and, in some cases, leave the state altogether). 1851
A somewhat controversial bill that would have disenfranchised African-Americans in Pennsylvania, is shot down by a vote of three to one in Harrisburg, on February 22nd; even many of the openly prejudiced legislators cannot bring themselves to deny rights that have already been granted[Unfortunately, perhaps largely due to sheer poor luck, a similar measure was actually *approved* IOTL].
The first confirmed sighting by European-descended peoples of the Yosemite Valley occurs on March 27th. The government of California initially shows interest in the region, but ultimately decides to leave it alone for now.
On May 1st, the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations opens in London, England; it is a marvelous success.
Sometime in July, an abolitionist is shot to death in Knoxville, Tennessee. The murder generates outcry up North, but little can be done for the man.
During the month of September, John B. Russwurm, the Afro-American publisher, arrives in Liberia in the hopes of establishing permanent residence there.
The Studebaker brothers found a small wagon company in Fort Wayne, Indiana, on April 9th.
On May 17th, Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, the first major anti-slavery novel ever written in America, is successfully published in Boston. It quickly becomes a best seller.
On September 7th, Former U.S. President Henry Clay passes away in Washington, D.C.; 2 days later, he becomes the first statesman to ever lay under the Capitol Rotunda.
U.S. Presidential Elections, 1852: In a surprising twist, Republican candidate from Illinois[He never left Ohio IOTL] William Dayton, manages to beat both the Whig candidate from North Carolina, William Mangum, and the Democrat ticket of Stephen Douglas/Lewis Cass, to the White House. Dayton becomes the first Republican candidate to ever win a Presidential election in the U.S. Also, in California, William B. Ide of the Bear Party loses to American immigrant David Broderick of the Liberal Party.
On March 17th, Levi Strauss founds a clothing company in San Francisco, California.
John Brown Russwurm, the African-American publisher, and Liberian statesman, dies in Monrovia following a bout with malaria on April 2nd.
On May 14th, the city of Nanjing comes under siege by Taiping forces.
Joaquin Murrieta, the famous Californio bandito, survives an encounter with the California Republic Militia on July 21st.
Iesada Tokugawa becomes the 13th Shogun of Japan on July 27th, after the death of his father.
A major slave revolt occurs in Alabama, in which a notorious slave driver is killed, started by about 400 African-Americans, but manages to grow up to 2,000. Despite the seemingly small-scale rebellions, it takes 3 weeks in September and October to put down the revolt, in which 180 of the blacks are executed. President Dayton angers many conservative Southerners by refusing to condemn the revolt, or the killing of the abusive overseer.
In November, growing discontent over the lack of responsible government, and what is seen as continued neglect by Britain, broke out into a full-scale revolt on the 7th, after a demonstration in Montreal went horribly wrong.....when a blundering policeman shot into the crowd. By the end of the month, half a dozen other revolts were taking place in both Canada East and Canada West.
On December 22nd, an American wannabe filibuster by the name of James Gadsden is shot after a botched money deal in Sonora. He dies five days later, but the shooter is not prosecuted. A fellow adventurer, William Walker, then living in West Texas, then took advantage of the shooting, and, as it's said, formed the James Gadsden Society with a small group of friends on December 29th, of that year, in Franklin, just outside of El Paso.
On Feb. 27th, the Canadian militias seized the small town of Bytown, Canada West, after a short firefight with colonial forces.
The body of Friedrich Beneke, the famed German psychologist, is found in Berlin on April 8th; the man has apparently committed suicide.
A brief, but bloody skirmish occurs between the West Texas militias and the Army of the Republic of the Rio Grande, near Laredo, West Texas, on April 27th. It doesn't amount to much on it's own, but it does make clear to some that the border is not yet secure for Americans.
The James Gadsden Society organizes their first filibustering raid against the small town of Santa Teresa, Sonora, on July 2nd, sparking attention and concern in both Mexico and the United States.....
On August 7th, William Walker personally leads an attack on a Sonoran garrison 50 miles southwest of Santa Teresa, which sparks concerns of a larger invasion of the country, in Hermosillo.....
The Canadian Patriotes seize the city of Laval, Canada East, on October 7th; they then use this as a bridge head for a future invasion of Montreal. This tactic proves to have paid off, as Montreal falls on October 12th, after 3 days of heavy fighting. Significant concern is sparked in Britain as many fear this could lead to rebellions elsewhere; the Prime Minister considers sending a large contingent to Canada, but American President Dayton warns that the United States will intervene if London makes that decision. At the end of the month, the British back off.
On November 3rd, Quebec City falls to the Canadian insurgents.
A large number of mercenaries swarm out of El Paso, West Texas, during the afternoon hours of November 28th, headed westward with much haste.
On December 27th, a pair of enslaved African-Americans from Kentucky make a bee-line for the North; slave catchers desperately try to find them before they lose track of them.
On March 9th, former American President Daniel Webster dies in Massachusetts.
The Battle of Peterborough occurs in Canada West between May 26th and May 29th, ending with a Canadianist victory.
To the horror of many, the Fugitive Slave Act is signed into law by a slight margin on September 17th. President Dayton attempts to veto the bill but it passes anyway, when his veto is over-ridden by the remaining congressmen.
On April 7th, West Texas is admitted to the Union as a slave state, with it's capital at San Antonio. As a compromise, however, some counties are allowed to ban slavery from their jurisdictions: chief amongst them are Bexar County,[or at least the purchase or sale of slaves], Crockett County, and Pecos County. This essentially makes West Texas a border state of sorts.
April 27th: A major schism begins in the Mormon faith after a heated debate between the conservative Brighamites, and the more liberal Smithites, over interpretations of certain doctrines.
June 6th: William Walker's men raid and otherwise terrorize the small town of Caborca in Sonora. Many of the Mestizo inhabitants are either brutalized or murdered outright, and there are several instances of Hispano women being raped by the vicious thugs.
On July 28th, widespread allegations of corruption in the California Democratic Party are released in San Francisco, to the outrage of many; several Democratic officials, two of them Southerners(one of them a member of the notorious Calhoun family of South Carolina), are lynched in the city.
On October 4th, William Walker's men attack the small town of San Luis, Sonora, near the American border. This becomes the final straw, and three days later, the government of Sonora asks America to intervene, to which Dayton gladly accedes.
William Dayton narrowly loses the 1856 American Presidential election to N.J. Democrat Robert F. Stockton, a noted war hero.
The fighting in Canada eventually wears down during the latter half of 1856, as British forces find themselves unable to hold on, mainly as they are engaged in combat elsewhere, chiefly in Persia and Crimea. The Canadians agree to a cease-fire and treaty in October, with the promise that Britain will pull out all troops by no later than 31 May of the following year; in return, the Canadian government will make their best effort to ensure the safety of those British troops not engaged in further fighting.
On January 21st, William Walker's forces retreat back to West Texas, having been chased out of Sonora altogether.
Elisha Gray Otis installs the first elevator in a small apartment building in Chicago, Ill., on April 4th[in the real world, this occurred on March 23rd, in New York, at 488 Broadway]. These machines also become known as levitators in Europe later on.
On April 9th, The United States finalizes it's annexation of the Republic of California, when a new state constitution is ratified. For the first time, the popular sovereignty doctrine is put to the test, as voters decide whether or not to allow slavery; California becomes a free state by a margin of nearly 4 to 1(a clause is inserted, however, that does allow individual counties to restrict or even ban the settling of free blacks in the area; at least a few counties, nearly all dominated by Southerners, do the latter). Admission to the Union is granted on July 9th.
On June 2nd, a treaty is signed between Persia and the U.K., after 9 months of fighting.
Minnesota is admitted to the Union on July 10th; unsurprisingly, as with California, it is a free state. With this, however, the balance between slave and free states has been thrown off and concern eventually develops amongst many southern quarters.
On July 19th of this year, the Canadian government comes together in Ottawa[formerly Bytown], Ontario for it's first official business. This day later becomes memorialized as Canada Day, similar to the Fourth of July in the U.S.
(However, though, a dispute does develop between the U.S. and Canada in regards to the western border between them.)
On July 20th, Baja California officially breaks away from Mexico, as an independent state of its own.
Frederick Douglass, the African-American abolitionist, survives an assassination attempt in Chicago on July 30th. The shooter, a cousin by marriage to Democratic Congressman Levi Boone, is apprehended quickly by police. When the connection to Boone is revealed, the Congressman becomes so embarrassed by this that he essentially shuts himself away from the public; despite retaining support from conservative Democrats, he will resign his office in February, 1858.
On August 19th, the Welsh city of Cardiff becomes home to Britain's, and the world's, first association football team[In the real world, it was Sheffield that became the home of the first such sports organization in our reality, on October 24th of the same year, to be precise].
Also, in August, the African-American abolitionist, Sojourner Truth, travels to the British Isles. Her reception in Britain is a tad mixed, but receives a rather warm welcome in Ireland. She will return to America in November and discuss her experiences over there.[Based on, and inspired by, Frederick Douglass's own trip to the Emerald Isle in the real world in 1855.]
Ignacio Comonfort steps down as Mexican President on Sept. 12th of this year. Felix Zuloaga, a veteran of the Mexican War, will take his place[this occurred on Nov. 30th in the real world].
Sometime in October of this year, a small settlement was founded in Malaysia at the confluence of the Gombak and Klang rivers, as a trading post. It would eventually evolve into the town of Kuala Lumpur, later becoming the capital of British Malaya.
Felix Zuloaga is assassinated in Mexico City on February 7th, by a pro-Liberal veteran of the Mexican War. Jose Mariano de Salas takes his place, but he is not popular with many liberals or some moderates and thus, unrest begins to become a problem.... Without the ascension of Napoleon III to power, there is no French Empire, as we know it, exactly. And thus, Felice Orsini does not try to assassinate him on March 10th of this year, as it the real world.
In Italy, the attempted kidnapping, in April, of a young Jewish boy named Francesco Mortara, fails, and his parents flee to New Orleans, in the United States. This attempted kidnapping will later provoke much international controversy. [In the real world, this young man was named Edgardo and, unfortunately, the real-world individual could not escape his kidnapping. He later joined the Augustinian Order and became a priest, including spending some time in New York].
On August 7th, an assassination attempt is made on the life of elderly former South Carolina senator John C. Calhoun. The shooter, a free black man, manages to flee the country, despite the best efforts of authorities to capture him, and results in the creation of a bill that supports either the eviction, or enslavement, of any free African-American that the government chooses to target.....[In the real world, the state of Arkansas passed a bill that would have enslaved all free people of color by 1860. Amazingly, this OTL law wasn't enforced but it did, unfortunately, terrorize many free African-Americans into leaving the state.]
Two major slave revolts occur in the American South in September, one in Alabama and the other in Mississippi, both of which cause extensive damage in certain areas. In both cases, free blacks and abolitionists are both blamed for supposedly causing the uprisings, and as a result, many begin to openly call for even harsher laws against abolitionism.
In October, to the horror & astonishment of many observers, even some Southerners, the legislature of the state of South Carolina passes the “Rhett Bill”, after a brother of Robert B. Rhett, the firebrand pro-slavery extremist, who was currently serving in the State Senate at the time.
Martin Delany, a successful African-American businessman, survives a murder attempt by a South Carolina slaveowner's son in Louisville, Kentucky, on November 22nd. His assassin is jailed, but tries to escape on Christmas Eve; the boy doesn't get far, however, and is lynched by a multiethnic mob after he slaps a white woman who doesn't cooperate with his demands. News of this causes an uproar amongst conservatives in South Carolina, but little can be done.
On February 27th, American congressman Daniel Sickles is shot by Philip Barton Key, after it's discovered that the latter had been engaged in adultery with his wife. Sickles dies of his wounds a few days later and Key makes a run for Mexico.
On July 11th, a protest occurs in Venice over recent alleged abuses and general wrongdoing by the Austrian government. The authorities don't take this well, and later on that very day, some protestors end up being shot by Austrian soldiers. This incident sparks further unrest across the Hapsburg lands.
At the end of August, and early in September, a truly incredible solar storm amazes many on Earth with it's dazzling displays of light in the skies above many places, even reaching to the tropics. Unfortunately, however, the storm also affects many telegraph lines across the world, costing many millions of U.S. dollars' worth in damages.
On September 22nd, John Brown and some associates raid the plantation of a Mr. Simmons in southeast Virginia. Brown is injured by gunfire, but he is able to convince 4 dozen of the man's slaves to go with him. They are later led to a ship which takes them to Liberia.
Mekteb-i Mülkiye, the Ottoman Empire's first modern university, is founded on November 17th of this year.
And, so, here we are. Things are beginning to get very nasty in the United States.
The state of Mississippi becomes the second state to sign what are called “Negro Exclusion” laws on February 17th of this year. Free blacks must leave the state by no later than 1 Jan., 1861, or face possible enslavement. News of this horrifies many people in the North and West but little can really be done for now, still. It does, however, rally abolitionists from across the country.
An unprovoked bolt-out-of-the-blue attack occurs on the Wiyot people, near Arcata, California on April 17th; nearly 4 dozen, mainly women, die. Bret Harte, a well-respected local news reporter, travels to San Francisco to break the news. A good number of people are stunned by the brutality, but local lawmen in Arcata are intimidated into keeping their mouths shut by some of the less scrupulous residents of town. When the current Republican Governor and former President of the California Republic, John C. Fremont, hears of this, he decides that he will not tolerate such disrespect of lawmen for any reason, and on the 26th, sends some of the state militia to arrest the guilty parties. This doesn't go well and a major shootout breaks out on the white-occupied part of Indian Island on the 27th; thirty-two of the white men die in a vain attempt to hold off the militia. During the next two days, many more conservative elements of California society take to the streets in many communities, and one protest in San Jose turns into a full-blown riot, which apparently is targeted towards any minorities they can find; nearly twenty African-Americans and Chinese, and one Native American, are killed before law and order is made clear. There is also at least one attempt to assassinate Bret Harte in early May; Harte will leave Arcata altogether in 1862 and does not return for some time.
National reaction to this event is mostly that of astonishment and bewilderment, but many more hardcore conservatives find themselves sympathizing with the murderers of the Natives; there are some, particularly in the Southeast, that make such praise public, including, no less, influential former South Carolina Congressman Robert Barnwell Rhett.
On June 9th, Illinois Governor Abraham Lincoln signs a historic labor law that provides for the basic protection of laborers within the state. Including the right to strike under poor working conditions.
On September 11th, an attempt is made to assassinate John C. Fremont in San Francisco; Fremont survives, but a man who was hit, dies of his injuries the next evening. The perpetrator, whose real name will not be known for some years, is soon outed as a perpetrator of the Indian Island massacre, by an associate of the Arcata reporter, Bret Harte. An attempt to bail him out is made a week later, and temporarily succeeds. The fugitive, however, tries to hijack a stagecoach headed southwards to San Diego, when he realizes he's been unable to coverall his tracks. He fails, but not before brutally beating a woman passenger, which doesn't stop until a male passenger punches him, forcing him to drop out of the vehicle, which speeds away. The male passenger of the coach is later revealed to be Republican State Senator David Broderick, a resident of San Francisco; the woman victim was a sister of a business associate of his. The would-be assassin is brought back to S.F. and tried for his crimes, including the attempted murder of Gov. Fremont. The man is found guilty on all counts and is to sentenced to be hung. When the date of November 4th comes, he frankly states his lack of regret, and openly mocks not just the dead victim, but those Natives who died at Indian Island, until his death.
Perhaps partly thanks to this, John C. Fremont wins nearly 60% of the vote and is re-elected for a second term. (When he is sworn into office, he makes it clear that any further unprovoked massacres of minorities will not be tolerated. Partly because of this, many more reactionary conservatives will later leave the state for other places, over the next half decade, peaking in 1861-62; several Southern newspapers openly welcome these voluntary exiles. This does not, of course, eliminate racism in California by any means, but Fremont's victory does send a clear message: one should not be allowed to utilize one's prejudices to skirt the law.)
Also, Stephen Douglas, the Democratic candidate former governor of Indiana, wins the 1860 U.S. elections in a narrow race versus not just radical Republican Hannibal Hamlin, but also Southern Democrat Congressman Louis T. Wigfall, lately of Mecklenburg, East Texas. In the end, it's actually the state of Illinois that puts him over the edge: Hamlin is too radical for many moderates and very few are willing to vote for the highly bigoted(even for the era) pro-slavery “Tobacco Democrat” faction[in the real world, Southern Dems, particularly those especially beholden to planter interests, were labelled “Bourbon” Democrats].
[During the dozen years or so immediately preceding the American Civil War, there is a growing movement to eliminate slavery in much of the country, even in some of the “border” states, especially Kentucky and Missouri, both of which are receiving significant amounts of European immigrants, particularly those of French, Czech, Belgian and German extraction. Even in southern Louisiana, the heart of “Cajun Country”, a movement supporting an initiative to free the slaves is starting to blossom, including in New Orleans; Although many abolitionists are willing to accept the full equal citizenship of African-Americans, a good number of them in Missouri and their deep-cover comrades in La. in particular, greatly prefer sending these freed blacks to Liberia, as many as possible. In any case, tensions will gradually get worse, with violence becoming more and more of an issue as time flies by.....]
On April 11th of this year, the Austrians put down a protest in Split, in Croatia; 20 people are shot. There is much international condemnation of these crimes but very little is actually done.
British scientist Charles Darwin, after years of research, publishes On the Origins and Natural Selection of Species in April of this year[a couple of years later than in the real world, but is more expansive than the OTL treatise] .
The Second Battle of Nanjing, in June, proves to be a vital turning point in the favor of the Taiping forces, as the Qing Chinese fail to defend the city. The Russians, who had been aiding the Taiping rebels since 1856, now begins to put pressure on Beijing to end the conflict once and for all.
On September 7th, American president Stephen Douglas suffers a heart attack on the grounds of the White House, sparking immediate concern for the President's health.....
Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, mother of the current British monarch Queen Victoria, dies in Windsor, Berkshire, on October 20th. She is mourned by many across the Anglosphere, even in Canada and the United States.
On November 22nd of this year, a bill that will mandate compensated emancipation of slaves is introduced in the Delaware state Congress in Dover. This comes on the heels of the state of Maryland banning the trading of slaves within its borders in 1856. Mainly because Delaware actually has very few slaves at this time, aided by the fact that are actually more free than enslaved blacks in the state, and growing abolitionist sentiment, the bill faces no serious opposition, and is signed by the Governor a month later, taking full effect on April 1st of the next year.
On April 26th, Frederick William IV of Prussia dies, and is replaced by his son, who becomes Wilhelm I.
In July, a meeting of Italian nationalists, representing half a dozen different polities, occurs in the city of Genoa. The meeting is a success, but word of this raises concerns of a potential major conflict erupting in the region.
Serfdom is abolished in Russia, by decree of the Tsar, on August 7th of this year[this occurred in March 1861 in the real world.....or February 19th, to be more precise, using the old Julian calendar].
Nebraska is admitted as a state on Sept. 12th of this year. It is a free state.
American President Stephen Douglas suffers another heart attack on November 4th of this year; sadly, however, he doesn't recover and dies with his wife by his side five days later. His Vice-President, a rather middle-of-the-road Western Democrat, Lovell H. Rousseau, a Kentucky native who had recently served as a two-time Missouri congressman before the 1860 election, is sworn in as his successor. Rousseau continues his predecessor's moderate policies, but does more to reach across to Republicans in private, while also trying to appease some of the less reactionary Southern Democrats, including trying to assuage fears of possible widespread violence by blacks if they are freed; in one speech in 1864, he points to the example of Delaware, a state which itself eliminated slavery but has not seen any sort of outbreaks of racial violence since then.
In Australia, the British colony of Cooksland[IOTL Queensland] is split off from New South Wales on September 30th. Brisbane is selected as the capital.
In Mexico, a significant amount of unrest continues under Jose Mariano de Salas, particularly in Chihuahua, and in Chiapas and the Yucatan as well. And, also, revanchism from the Mexican government prompts many of the breakaway states to unite into a loose federation in Sept., which is officially called “Rio Bravo” but colliquially known as “Mexico Del Norte”, with it's headquarters in Monclova; Chihuahua secedes from Mexico and joins the Rio Bravo Federation in early November, which sparks a significant amount of political tension in the area.....[Some readers may note some similarities to the “The Story of a Party” timeline. This is actually a homage to that story, if a loose one, perhaps.]
In a highly stunning turn of events, the Arizona Territory actually ends up allowing slavery by a very small margin, on February 26th of this year. However, though, quick moves are made to prevent the “Peculiar Institution” from spreading beyond certain areas, but mainly as appeasement to anti-slavery forces in the area, many of them former (mostly blanco) Mexicans.
In June, Alabama becomes the third Southern state to sign a law explusing it's free black population from within their borders. And, as with S.C. and Miss., free blacks who don't leave are threatened with enslavement.
Also, in June, an incident occurs in one of the areas disputed between the U.S. and Canada, when one of the sheep of an American farmer is accidentally shot by a Canadian national living on the other side of the zone on the afternoon of the 16th. This, thankfully, does not end in bloodshed but it does spark a debate on which lands belong to which country, in that part of North America.
In Missouri, the largely pro-abolitionist town of St. Genevieve is terrorized by the Cape Girardeau based outlaw named William Quantrill, on July 21st. It will be the first of many attacks to occur in the state over the next few years.
On August 5th, Frederick VII of Denmark passes away. His cousin, Christian IX, replaces him.
Also in August, another significant peaceful demonstration occurs in Venice; the Austrians try to put it down, but not before dozens of partisans come out of hiding and kill many of the Austrian soldiers. This event creates the initial spark for what will soon become known as the Italian Liberation Wars.
In October, a major slave rebellion occurs at the plantation of a brother of Robert Barnwell Rhett in South Carolina, involving over 400 slaves; the revolt is put down within two weeks but 180 whites killed, most of them well-to-do. This strikes terror into the hearts of many, and Robert Rhett himself personally executes several of the slaves who were involved in the revolt, including a ten-year-old boy.
A former small planter turned abolitionist, L.J. Bozeman, is murdered in Kentucky on November 16th after he is confronted by a neighbor regarding his hosting of a conference by William Lloyd Garrison on his property. His killer is convicted, charged with murder, and hung on Christmas Eve. The death of Mr. Bozeman convinces many Kentuckian slaveholders to begin to distance themselves from the Fire Eaters as quickly as possible[this may surprise some readers, but yours truly actually directly used an OTL relative of his; the real L.J. Bozeman, at this time in our world, was serving the Union during the Civil War.]
In February of this year, a peaceful demonstration occurs in Warsaw, agitating for better living conditions and political representation. Unfortunately, things go south quickly and two days later, over a hundred people lay dead, and by the end of April, Poland will be thrown into a state of martial law.
On April 12th of this year, the abolitionist John Brown dies in his native Ohio. He is mourned by many anti-slavery persons, even some who disagreed with his tactics.
On September 17th, the Taiping Empire officially wins its independence when a top Chinese general surrenders in Hunan. Soon after, a peace treaty is signed in Shanghai, which forces the Qing to permanently recognize the Taiping state. Around this time, the Russians also set up an embassy in Nanjing.
During the month of October, yet another destructive slave revolt occurs in South Carolina, this time on the plantation of a son of John C. Calhoun; the owner does not survive the encounter. It takes until early November to put down the rebellion entirely and over 100 well-to-do whites are killed.
Lovell H. Rousseau is narrowly able to win a second term in office, this time versus Republican Abraham Lincoln, the popular governor of Illinois, and Andrew Jackson Donelson of the Southern Democrats.
On December 2nd, the Mexican government occupies the southern portion of Tamaulipas on the direct orders of President de Salas after he catches word of purported insurrectionary activity in that region. This action drives the two nations ever closer to war.....
On March 9th, a failed assassination attempt is made on the life of Frederick Douglas in St. Louis. His would-be murderer flees the state, directly aided by some of the remaining pro-slavery forces in the area, and eventually hides out in Memphis, Tennessee. However, though, the man who saved Douglas's life by warning him dies from his own wound a few days later. The man, a 24 year old Cape Girardeau native named Thomas Giles, is convicted, and then hung on the morning April 17th. Later that same day, a riot breaks out as angry reactionaries trash a majority black neighborhood in the city, killing eight(including a German immigrant), and injuring dozens more. These two incidents not only spark further demands to end slavery in Missouri but also energize pro-slavery elements to dig in, and prepare for all-out war.....
On May 9th, a tornado completely destroys a plantation near Itawamba, Miss., killing 5 slaves and all nine members of the Johnson family. The slaves who survive try to escape; some are recaptured, but many make it to Missouri and Illinois. Many years after the event, the novelist Mark Twain will claim to have met one of the survivors of the twister.
On July 17th, the Cherokee chieftain, Stand Watie, engages in combat with U.S. Army forces in the southwest of the Indian territory; the battle lasts two days, and although they lose, the Cherokee flee to New Mexico instead of surrendering to the Americans.
A hurricane ravages the coast of Georgia on September 22nd, wrecking much of Brunswick and the surrounding area. 700 people die, including 300 residents of Brunswick.
Several people die on November 4th, after an explosion occurs in front of an abolitionist meeting hall in Dayton, Ohio.
Maryland officially bans slavery on February 27th of this year; this sparks concerns and heated debates in neighboring Virginia, which is beginning to see the rise of an abolitionist movement of its own, particularly in the western portion of the state.....
Silas M. Gordon, a notorious pro-slavery terrorist, is gunned down by John Curtis, a young half-Kiowa resident of Pawnee County, Kansas, on April 27th; his body is not found for over a month. And when it is recovered, the governor of Kansas refuses to return the body to Missouri, and only relents after pro-slavery sympathizers in Lecompton threaten to lynch him and his entire family. William Lloyd Garrison, the famous writer and abolitionist, survives an assassination attempt in the city of St. Louis on June 9th. The man who plotted the attempted murder, a cousin of Robert Rhett, flees to South Carolina, and later, Spanish Cuba.
In Poland, the border city of Czestochowa becomes the scene of a protest on August 10th. As in Warsaw in 1864, this demonstration also ends badly, with two dozen people dying. Some of the most desperate people involved manage to flee into neighboring Austria-Hungary.
On September 7th, the United States and Canada sign the Rainy River Treaty, in Detroit, Mich.; the U.S. creates the Superior Territory out of the formerly disputed area shortly afterwards.
The government of Rio Bravo officially declares war on Mexico after an incident near the southern border with West Texas on Sept. 24th; the United States government almost immediately decides to intervene in favor of Rio Bravo.
Tensions between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces in Missouri finally explode in October of this year, in response to the murder of an entire family in Jefferson City on the 7th. After it was discovered that an associate of Silas Gordon, the now-deceased renegade, had been the one responsible(originally, a black man was blamed for the murder), anti-slavery protestors met in front of City Hall on the 24th. The governor pleaded with them to go home, but most refused. Several dozen pro-slavery protestors showed up and began to heckle the crowd. The anti-slavery men and women responded with jeers and insults, and then one of the pro-slavery protestors fired his gun towards the opposing group, hitting a woman. A few of anti-slavery protestors drew their own weapons and a bloodbath began in the square. Mark Twain, the famous novelist, is said to have personally coined the term “Mad Missouri”, for the events that would follow.....[this is quite similar to the 'Bleeding Kansas' events of the real world]
On February 8th, the last of the Shoguns, Tokugawa Yoshinobu, abdicates his position. Prince Mutsuhito, son of the late emperor Komei, becomes Emperor in Kyoto, and ends the Shogunate, thus ushering in the Meiji era.....
Mad Missouri-February 11/12th: A major clash occurs between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces in Mehlville, Mo.; 53 combatants die on both sides.
Bret Harte, the former reporter turned novelist, escapes a small, but furious, anti-Chinese lynch mob in San Francisco, after helping a Chinese immigrant escape a bar fight on April 6th.....
Mad Missouri-April 26th: The town of Columbia is ransacked by pro-slavery forces, searching for a handful of abolitionists who set free 50 slaves of the Matthews family in Calloway County; 42 people die, several of them women. In response, the next day, a good portion of the pro-slavery town of Festus is burned to the ground by a group calling themselves the John Brown Underground.....[the name of this organization is actually a reference to a group featured in the 2004 alt-history satirical feature, “C.S.A.: The Movie”.]
Mad Missouri-May 7/9th: An elderly man is shot by a neighbor over a marriage dispute near Harrisonville, just east of the border with Kansas; the neighbor, an abolitionist, wished to marry the man's daughter; her father was pro-slavery. Two days later, Harrisonville erupts into near chaos as people debate over who was in the right, and Governor Andrew J. Hamilton is forced to call in the state militias to restore order to the community[Hamilton, in our world, was actually the governor of Texas at this time, and, ITTL, had actually served in the State Senate of East Texas from 1847-52, before moving to Missouri in 1855.].
On July 1st, former Canadian Loyalist John A. McDonald, who had been living in British Columbia since 1859, becomes the first Governor of the colony, a post he will hold until 1875.
Mad Missouri-July 22nd: A slave revolt at a plantation near Mehlville is successful, leading as many as 50 slaves to flee the area. 30 of them appear just outside of St. Genevieve, where local abolitionists shepherd them to safety in Illinois. Most of the others try to escape thru St. Louis; some are caught, but some others are also able to escape.
Mad Missouri-August 7th: In revenge for the destruction wreaked on his father's plantation, the son of the owner gathers a small militia and they terrorize the residents of St. Genevieve. The governor is forced to call in the state militias to deal with the interlopers; during a gun battle late that night, the planter's son and most of his associates, including two of his brothers, are killed. This incident sparks further violence by pro-slavery elements in the state.
Riots occur in the Polish city of Bialystok on September 11th, after a beggar is hung for stealing food from a local nobleman. 4 people die during the unrest.
Mad Missouri-November 14th: The city of Bonne Terre is ravaged by pro-slavery militias after it's discovered that the John Brown Underground has been operating out of the city. Of the 2,600 people who call the community home, are a small community of about 70 African-Americans; many of them are brutally slaughtered by militias led by William G. Boggs, a relative of the former governor, Lilburn Boggs.....sparking a major reaction by anti-slavery militants in the state.
Mad Missouri-January 27th: The anti-slavery leaning town of Crystal City is terrorized by some of the more militant residents of the nearby town of Festus; 46 people die in 8 hours of fighting in the fields between the two communities. A day later, the governor of Missouri declares a state of martial law in his state.
As the state of Missouri continues to be wracked with turmoil, there are increasing calls by concerned citizens in the surrounding states, and beyond, for President Rousseau to manuever the Army in to help the embattled Missouri state militias. There are also increasing calls by many to eliminate slavery in Missouri, having seen the examples set by Delaware and Maryland in recent years.
Mad Missouri-April 4/7th: Quantrill's Raiders ride thru the town of Liberty, killing four, three days later, they attack the small town of Zebulon, Kansas[near OTL Topeka], and shoot up a known abolitionist meeting place, killing another five people in just ten minutes.
Mad Missouri-June 4th-8th: The Battle of Kansas City-Early on the morning of June 2nd, a division of the state militia, accompanied by the Clay County sheriff and several deputies, had moved on an illicit business operation that had been reportedly funding pro-slavery activity in the state. A gunfight had erupted between the proprietors and the lawmen, and one of them was arrested and brought to court, to be tried the next day. Word of the incident spread like wildfire across the state and many pro-slavery militias were rallied to the cause of their sympathizer. The man had been found guilty of all charges, but had been bailed out early on the 4th. He hadn't made it out of the county, however, before lawmen caught up to him. But the crook had backup; 200 pro-slavery renegades, to be precise, and the lawmen were forced to flee back to Kansas City; the rebels followed them back to town and began to attack the city in general. The local militias did everything they could to hold them off, but it took the assistance of two Kansas state militia divisions to fend off the rebels.
Mad Missouri-August 4th: U.S. President Lovell Rousseau, after many hours of consideration, reluctantly agrees to intervene against the pro-slavery renegades, on behalf of the state of Missouri. From this point on, the anti-slavery side begins to gain the upper hand.
Mad Missouri-October 4th-7th: After a couple months of deliberation, the Missouri State Congress finally votes on whether or not to eliminate slavery. There is an extraordinarily intense debate and several Congressmen are forced to be seperated after fighting breaks out, but the results come in: the Congress has voted in favor of emancipation, 53 to 47. A provision is made for compensation to slave owners who were not particularly malicious towards their slaves, which is accepted by the majority of abolitionists in the state, even if mainly as a means to ensure their victory.
Mad Missouri-October 30-31st: The Burning of St. Genevieve-It was the last major act by pro-slavery forces in Missouri, but amongst the most damaging; a pair of fires set at a liquor store and a gunpowder store owned by a local gun dealer took two days to put out and 18 people were killed, including a 10 year old girl overcome by smoke.
Mad Missouri-November 16th: The last of the major pro-slavery resistance is mopped up in the Cape Girardeau area.
After the events of Mad Missouri, many more reactionary Missourians will end up fleeing the state, mainly towards the Southeast.
On November 24th, A British transport ship carrying over 100 Fenians is hijacked by the passengers off the coast of Iceland; it's eventually steered towards New Brunswick, were many end up staying; others go on further south to America.
U.S. Presidential Elections, 1868: Lovell Rousseau, though respected by many, decided not to run. The Northern Democrats nominated Horace Greeley of New York to replace him, while the Southern Whiskey Democrats picked William P. Miles, the firebrand South Carolina congressman. The Republican candidate, Salmon Chase, formerly of Ohio, but now a Michigan Senator, won by a relative landslide, with his running mate, Schuyler Colfax of Indiana, backing him all the way.....
[At this point in time, North-South tensions have gotten to an alarming high. There are numerous concerns that the secessionists have begun to take over much of the south. Making matters all the worse for the North, is that the Southern Fire-Eaters have begun a broader campaign to appeal to hardcore racists and other reactionaries across the Mason-Dixon line. Unfortunately, it has begun to work rather well, as there are people as far away as Pennsylvania and Oregon who have answered the call of the Fire-Eaters and their ilk.]
The queen of Madagascar, Rasoherina, rebuffs an attempt to convert the entire court to Catholic Christianity, on February 17th. [Madagascar, though isolated, has already had a somewhat different history from this world; Radama II lived until late 1867, for one, instead of dying in 1863 as in the real world.]
On February 21st, the U.S. negotiates a final end to the Rio Bravo War. As per the Treaty of Veracruz, Mexico is forced to withdraw all active forces from Tamaulipas and Durango, which broke away during the conflict, until a democratic solution can be reached. In the meantime, the country soon becomes a U.S. protectorate[not unlike the Phillipines in the real world, circa 1899-1900].
In April, the United States formally opens relations with Japan, for the first time, now truly opening the country to the West. Also, on April 20th of this year, the Supreme Court rules, 7 to 2, that the Fugitive Slave Act was unconstitutional, because it violated the rights of the free states.
Mary Ward, an Anglo-Irish scientist, and lady of learning, successfully tests a primitive (though not truly self-propelled) steam car built by her cousins, in early June.[Tragically, the test that took place in our world in August 1869, ended with her death.]; The vehicle piques further interest in future projects.
In July, Leo Tolstoy, the Russian novelist, will complete his “War and Peace” story. It remains a bit obscure in Russia for some years, but becomes a hit in Britain, and, later, the United States and Canada.
On September 2nd, the National Trade Unionist Party is founded in the United Kingdom; it's the first party founded specifically to represent the working classes in that country[the real world Labour Party wouldn't come into existence until 1900]. They will become better known as just “The Unionists”.
On Sept. 9th, Susan B. Anthony becomes the first woman awarded a license to practice law in the United States, in Illinois[in our reality, this distinction actually went to Arabella Mansfield, of Burlington, Ia.].
The Scottish clipper ship Cutty Sark is launched on November 9th of this year. It will see half a century of service, before it is retired; it later becomes part of a museum on the centennial anniversary of it's launch, and will be known as one of only a small handful of surviving 19th Century ships to survive to the year 2000 intact, and the only one from Britain[this actually happened in the real world as well].
For anybody watching, I sincerely apologize for the long delay: real life has been just a little challenging for me, in terms of getting things done. Nonetheless, here's the Civil War. Warning: huge block o' text may be ahead:
On January 24th, Robert Barnwell Rhett writes an editorial for a reactionary newspaper in Columbia, S.C., calling for the immediate secession of all remaining slave states and territories in the U.S.
A major slave revolt occurs on, and eventually spreads beyond. the plantation of the Simons family near Bainbridge, Ga., between the 24th and 28th of February; 36 of the slaves are killed but none of the men of the Simons family survive, nearly all of whom had developed a reputation for extreme cruelty in recent years.
Another major incident involving slaves occurs near Dyersburg in west Tennessee, when an overseer is stabbed to death during the night of April 8th as part of a revenge/escape plot; two slaves who try to warn their master are themselves disposed of as well. During the overnight hours, 150 of the slaves flee to New Madrid, into the now free state of Missouri, most of them reaching their goal. A few are eventually caught by slave catchers, but most elude capture. When word reaches Washington, President Chase issues an official Executive Order for the National Guard to arrest any slave catchers operating in free states, whenever they are found. This serves only to further anger many more reactionary slaveowners, and cries for secession become louder and louder with each passing day.
On June 4th, the organization known as the “Knights of White America” is founded in Maryland by members of the pro-slavery “Golden Circle” secret society, and the former Know Nothings, and several other reactionary groups. They soon become a major recruiter for the secessionist cause outside of the South, which prompts the federal government to try to take them down.
On June 28th, the abolitionist Lysander Spooner survives an assassination attempt in San Francisco, California. His assailant, 22 year old Benjamin Ryan Tillman, had been on the run from Kentucky lawmen after he murdered an African-American couple in Louisville supposedly involved in abolitionist causes. Tillman is bailed out of the attempted murder charge, but when California authorities learn of the Kentucky murders in August, they discover that Tillman already fled the state.
The final spark that will set off the powder keg towards civil war in the United States will be lit on August 4th, when New Mexico senator, and former soldier, Ulysses S. Grant, writes a resolution condemning the institution of slavery in the United States; he reminds his fellow Congressmen that the Founders neither wished, or intended, for slavery to remain forever a reality in the country, and called for a solution to the problems that lay ahead for America, including the total abolition of slavery. It is only a resolution, but it draws bipartisan support, not just from Republicans, but also from many moderate northern and western Democrats as well. The resolution passes the Senate by a slight majority at the end of the month; the same later holds true for the House, despite vigorous protests by Southern Democrats.
And when word of this eventually reaches the South, it ignites a public uproar never before seen in the area. Starting in early September, riots occur from Richmond, Virginia, to the town of Waco in East Texas, and back again. And after secessionists fail to take the port at Galveston, East Texas, at the end of the month, this proves to be the absolute last straw for the Southron nationalists....
On October 4th, the state of Mississippi decides to finally secede from the Union, with nearly 80% of the public supporting them. The state of South Carolina followed later that month after a truly disastrous failed slave revolt nearly destroyed the small town of Clemson. The new nation is named the Confederate States of America, and it's first capital becomes Montgomery, Alabama, after that state and Georgia secede in November. Jefferson Davis would be elected it's first(and only) President by a near unanimous margin, and only a day after he is inaugurated, he declares outright war against the Union, or, more specifically, those states most opposed to slavery in particular. And with this, the Civil War has officially begun.....
[As the year comes to a close, there are several hundred thousand Northern and Western reactionaries who find themselves becoming highly sympathetic to the Confederacy, and many tens of thousands actually volunteer to ally themselves with the C.S.A., including hardcore anti-Chinese racists in California and other far Western states, anti-immigrant xenophobes in the border states, and even a few hardcore conservative immigrants themselves, wishing to be recognized, if for no other reason. As mentioned before, the Knights of White America are one of the primary instigators of such. As a result, President Chase orders that any Union citizen caught aiding the Confederacy in any way be charged with high treason.].
U.S. Civil War: The Confederacy wins its first major battle at Hampton Roads, Va. on March 11th; after 3 days of fighting, 1,800 Union and 1,500 Confederate soldiers have died.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Lafayette(April 2nd-6th): Confederate soldiers and pro-C.S. partisans attacked this primarily pro-Unionist community; 400 Confederates and 800 Union soldiers & partisans perished in the fighting.
U.S. Civil War-The Skirmish at Beaumont(April 20th-25th): Union soldiers tried to defend the important port town of Beaumont, East Texas, from the Confederates, but were overwhelmed by the sheer size of the Southron force.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Bull Run(June 9th-12th): The Union Army manages to rout a Confederate offensive in the area, although with heavy losses.
U.S. Civil War-The Raid at Nacogdoches(July 18th-23rd): Nacogdoches, one of the few towns in East Texas with a large Afro-American population, was pillaged and burned down by the “Harkin's Hornets” division of the C.S. Army; over 200 were killed.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Evansville(Sept. 12Th-18th): The first major Union victory of the war came when a Confederate force lead by General Alexander Stephens was rebuffed and humiliated by a both slightly smaller and somewhat weaker Union defense force, led by a Colonel Dezotell of the Minnesota 4th, who'd been assisting local units clean up anti-Union partisans.
U.S. Civil War-The Silver City Incident(Sept. 25Th/26th): The Western Unionists were caught largely off guard when a pro-C.S. partisan group managed to devastate the small Army garrison east of town. The community would be held hostage for several months until the U.S. could finally get enough men and resources to liberate them.
U.S. Civil War-The Raid at Barstow(Nov. 2Nd): The small town of Barstow, California, was terrorized by a pro-C.S. partisan group calling themselves the “Gray Devils”, a primarily anti-Asian group. Reportedly, before they left, several of the town's more prominent Chinese citizens disappeared into thin air, never to be heard of again.....which sparked much attention and unease throughout California, especially amongst the minority populations.
U.S. Civil War-The Massacre at Wills Creek(Nov. 22nd-23rd): Wills Creek, East Texas, a town of about 2,200 people about 75 miles northeast of Dallas, was attacked by two divisions of the the C.S. Army and members of a group calling themselves the “Sons of Tom Green”, named after a Texan planter and judge who died during the last days of the Mexican War. The town's militia stood no chance against them, and surrendered on the 23rd. Unfortunately, the Sons of Tom Green took things farther than even many of the most radical Confederates would be willing to do; they actually executed civilians who even looked like they wouldn't cooperate with their every demand, including much of the small free black population of about a hundred souls.
On November 22nd, the final building blocks for consolidating the British colonies of Australia are laid down with the signing of the Melbourne Agreement; this leads to the official formation of the Dominion of Australia on 8 April of the following year.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Chattanooga(Jan. 25th-30th): This important East Tennessee town, still rather pro-Unionist like so many other communities in the Appalachian area, was invaded by the Confederates in the hopes of further securing the Tennessee River Valley. The Unionists did their best to hold out, but were thwarted when Confederate units from Georgia arrived to assist their fellows.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Sulphur Springs(Feb. 22nd-24th): Another East Texas town fell to the Confederates on this day, as they edged ever closer to Dallas and Fort Worth.
U.S. Civil War-Raid on Johnson City(Mar. 30th): The largely undefended small town of Johnson City, Tenn., was taken by Confederate General Jubal Early, after a brief battle with local militias. The Rebels then pilfered much of the town of it's supplies and food and razed several homes in the process.
U.S. Civil War-The Rout at Palmyra(Apr. 25Th): Union Lt. General William Mahone was able to rout a Confederate army led by Albert S. Johnston on this day.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Lenoir(May 5Th): The small town of Lenoir, North Carolina, became a major battleground when a Confederate force led by Lt. Gen. Christopher Memminger, Jr. attacked a Union company led by Col. James M. Pullen; Colonel Pullen escaped, but one of his lieutenants, Gideon Matthews, was captured and imprisoned at Andersonville, Ga., were he later died, in March, 1873.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Waco(May 28th-30th): Waco, East Texas, was, at this time, home to a garrison of about 8,000 Union soldiers, when a Confederate force of about 15,000 led by General David Bozeman attacked the garrison, just east of town. The battle was costly for the Confederates, but ultimately resulted in their victory; 2,000 Union men were dead, versus about 3,500 Confederates. with the fall of Waco, Gen. Bozeman's forces were able to cut throught the Hill Country with ease.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Springfield, Mo.(Jun. 16th-20th): A narrow, if rather costly, victory for the Union forces defending this growing prairie town, as 9,000 Confederates led by Col. James Stedman found themselves running out of ammunition, due to poor planning on the part of the Colonel; 1,000 Confederates surrendered.
U.S. Civil War-The Raid on Fresno(Jul. 11th): Fresno, California, was terrorized by a group calling themselves the “Army of Gadsden”, after the slain filibusterer, James Gadsden; 30 militiamen and volunteers who tried to stop the raid were killed, and 2 dozen civilians, including 2 entire families of the small black population, were taken hostage and disappeared.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Houston(Aug. 4th-9th): After several months of preparation, a Confederate force of 40,000, lead by Generals Clement Vallandigham and Andrew Humphreys, invaded Houston, the largest city in East Texas, with a population of about 50,000 residents. Much of the city was decimated during the fighting, and despite their best efforts, the Union troops led by Colonel William Travis, Jr., were unable to hold back the Confederates. Travis and his surviving men were ordered to retreat back to Austin to await further orders.
U.S. Civil War-The Burning of Fort Carter(Sept. 6th): On this day, Fort Carter, Arizona[On the site of the real world Flagstaff], was attacked and badly damaged during an engagement by the Grey Devils. Before the Grey Devils left, the fort was set alight, virtually destroying what was left. They also killed a Native American non-combatant, known only as Jose, who was attached to the installation.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Rowlett's Station (Sept. 9th): This battle took place in Kentucky not far from Woodsonville; it ended in a Confederate victory, and the loss of Union General John A. Wharton, of the West Texas 2nd, who was killed by long-range rifle fire.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Austin-(Sept. 24th-28th): In an attempt to hamper the Unionist war effort in East Texas, Clement Vallandigham opted to try to take out the state's capital city. But the Texas Rangers and 10,000 Union soldiers encamped near the city were tipped off by Braxton Bragg, a defecting Confederate colonel, allowing them some extra preparation time. The battle proved to be inconclusive, as neither side could gain much of an advantage. Vallandigham eventually realized that this endeavor would be too costly to pursue any further, and ordered his men to change course. However, though, the Confederate retreat proved to be a fruitful decision in the long run, as by mid October, southern East Texas would be cut off from the rest of the state.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of the Pecos-(Oct. 25th-26th): This was perhaps one of the most interesting battles of the war. On the east bank of the Pecos River, were the 10,000 men of Confederate Generals Vallandigham & Humphreys, and on the West Bank, a Unionist force of 7,000 led by General Samuel Pomeroy, and assisted by Colonels William Travis, Jr., and Elisha Pease, the latter man from West Texas himself. The battle relied a good deal on cannons and artillery and it's estimated that two fifths of Union deaths and half of Confederate deaths that had occurred were caused this way.
U.S. Civil War-The Defense of DuQuoin-(Nov. 3rd-5th): A Confederate attempt headed by Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson to take the town of DuQuoin, Ill., was thwarted by Colonels James Davidson of the Ohio 1st, and Stephen Dezotell of the Minnesota 4th, the latter of whom had also defended Evansville, Ind., in Sept. of the prior year.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of El Paso-(Nov. 11th-14th): This bloody battle occurred when Confederate General Clement Vallandigham saw an opprotunity to control a portion of the Rio Grande; at this time, West Texas had already been split in two, just as East Texas had been. Union General Samuel Pomeroy had fallen back to El Paso after the battle over the Pecos River, and had warned local authorities of an impending incursion. And just as well, because on November 11th, Vallandigham's Confederates made it just outside of town at 2 p.m. What followed was 3 whole days of hard fighting, including with the use of cavalry and cannons on both sides of the battle lines. Tragically, several dozen of the town's 8,000 residents perished during the fighting, including some women and even a few children.
U.S. Civil War-The Burning of El Centro(Nov. 24th):The Grey Wolves attacked this small primarily Latino desert settlement, murdering 40 people and taking many hostages; rumors circulate for weeks afterwards that some of the Mexicans may have been enslaved and sold to Southern plantations. U.S. Civil War-The Liberation of Miami(Dec. 7th-8th): This was one of the more unusual battles of the war, because it took place in South Florida. This particular area of the state had never been particularly pro-Confederate, and in the small, primarily Yankee-settled town of Miami, which had been occupied by Confederate troops since early October, there was growing resistance against the secessionist cause. Seeking to distract the Confederates, the U.S. had requested permission from the Republic of Cuba to station troops near Havana temporarily, in the hopes of setting a foothold in Florida. The Cubans agreed, and a few people in the country even volunteered to help the Yankees fight the Confederates; many greatly feared the slavers in Montgomery and despised them greatly.
On November 24th, 5,000 American troops landed on the southern tip of the peninsula, completely unnoticed, as there were few people living in this area. The trip to Miami was slow, as they were tredging through miles of swampland, but by December 6th, they had finally reached the outskirts of Miami. The battle that followed was low-key, but took longer than expected, as many of the Confederates stationed there were natives and knew the area well. However, though, by the afternoon of the 8th, the Union had won.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Mt. Carmel(Dec. 24Th/26th-28th): This small Illinois town was home to the last battle of 1872 as a Confederate force of about 10,000 men led by Edmund K. Smith, of the Army of Western Kentucky[This division didn't exist in OTL's Civil War; the group that General Smith commanded was just the Army of Kentucky]. Defending Mt. Carmel, were 8,000 Union soldiers and volunteers lead by Colonel P.G.T. Beauregard, a Louisiana native who had defected to the Union early on. Although the fighting had started on Christmas Eve, neither side wished to fight on Christmas Day, so both sides agreed to a temporary cease-fire for the duration of the holiday, with the fighting only resuming the next morning. But when it did, it made the snow-covered ground run red with blood as the two sides fought fiercely, lasting until the 28th. It had been costly for the Union, but they managed to hold their ground; Mt. Carmel would remain free.
Also, thanks to the outbreak of war, Salmon Chase and Schuyler Colfax won by a landslide in the 1872 U.S. elections; the conservative Democratic “peace ticket” of Thomas Bayard and John Scott Harrison won only Missouri, Kentucky, and one electoral vote in Ohio, with Bayard winning everywhere else, including even Kentucky and Virginia.
Other events of the year-
On Apr. 4th, the husband of Queen Victoria, Crown Prince Albert, dies after a brief illness in the Windsor family estate. She will not remarry.
The Taiping Republic opens an embassy in Great Britain on June 6th.
In August, a young American newspaper writer, and aspiring inventor from Iowa, named John Stiles, perfects the first modern typewriter, after 5 years of work[There are actually several claims as to who created the first modern typewriter in our reality, but it is generally agreed that Rasmus Malling-Hansen, a Danish educator, successfully finished work on, and sold, the first *commercial* modern typewriter, in 1870. Others may point to a small group in Milwaukee, Wis., led by one C. Latham Sholes, who made their first prototype in 1868]. He is later able to convince a Mr. Sholes, a respected Aurora, Illinois businessman, to help him take his promising business off the ground, and in 1875, sells his very first machines.
After years of talks, the German Empire is formally created on Sept. 9th; the famous statesman, Otto von Bismarck, is elected as it's first Chancellor.
In November, disputes over the control of Schleswig-Holstein explode into violence after a pair of border incidents, beginning what will be known as the Jutland War.
The United States will become the first nation in the world to open an embassy with the German Empire, on December 8th, in Washington, D.C.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of the Narrows(Jan. 22nd-25th): Near the site of the Battle of Fort Harrison 60 years earlier, pro-Confederate bushwhackers, associated with some auxiliary units of the C.S. Army, ambush an encamped U.S. Army division led by Lt. Colonel Calvin Campbell, on the 22nd. It turns into a 4-day long skirmish between the Yankees and the bushwhackers. The Yankees manage to fend off their assailants, but nearly 200 men die, or 80% of Campbell's total forces.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Fort Cotton(Jan. 31St): Confederate forces lead by Clement Vallandigham attacked this understaffed fort in southern Arizona. The fort is occupied by the Confederates for much of the rest of 1873.
U.S. Civil War-The Sacking of Carleton's Cove(Feb. 22Nd): The U.S. Army captures this small outpost on the southwest Gulf coast of Florida[this is not too far from the real world town of Fort Myers, Florida].
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Waxahachie(Mar. 24th-25th): Waxahachie, East Texas, then a small town of 4,400 people, was attacked by forces led by C.S. General D.W. Bozeman. Despite his best efforts, however, Union Colonel Fritz Teneger held the Confederates off.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Lynchburg(Mar. 30th-31st): Confederate Colonel Daniel Harvey Hill led a two-day offensive against Union forces headed up by Colonel James M. Pullen, who'd previously fought in the Battle of Lenoir, in May of the year prior. Hill's men fought fiercely, but with better tactics, and more supplies, Pullen was able to hold off the Confederates, although suffering substantial losses, and Colonel Hill was forced to withdraw back to the east.
U.S. Civil War-The Ojinaga Incident(Mar. 31st): Confederate soldiers under Colonel Jeremiah Worley, subordinated to Andrew Humphreys, pursued a small group of Tejano pro-Union partisans, and chased them to Presidio, West Texas, before the Tejanos were spotted on a scout on horseback crossing the Rio Grande and into Ojinaga, Chihuahua. Worley ordered his men to cross the river to continue pursuing the Tejanos. Worley's men ransacked the town for hours, but didn't find the men they were looking for. Colonel Worley then ordered his men to withdraw when he heard that the Rio Bravo Army was on it's way to Ojinaga; they escaped, but at a cost. They had wasted most of their ammunition trying to apprehend the Tejanos, and several amongst their ranks had died.
U.S. Civil War-The Razing of Edwardsville(Apr. 5th-7th): The last major incident to occur in Illinois for the duration of the war. Confederate troops led by Colonel Jacob Ezekiel Collins made one last thrust along the Wabash River, and raced towards Edwardsville. The small garrison in town stood no chance, and by sundown, most of the 50 or so militiamen guarding the town had been killed or otherwise put out of action. Collins then ordered the town be razed and pillaged of anything worth stealing; this went on for 2 whole days until Lt. Colonels William C. Oliver, of the Illinois 7th, and Joseph P. Matthews of the Indiana 2nd, intervened, and chased out the Southrons, capturing several dozen in the process. News of the atrocity would spread far and wide, and newspapers as far away as the Washington Territory blared the news on their front pages; several tens of thousands of additional volunteers would later join the war effort in the next three weeks alone, because of this.
U.S. Civil War-The Massacre at Cripple Creek(Apr. 22nd-23rd): The tiny village of Cripple Creek, in the Colorado Territory, was accosted by members of the “White Crusaders”, an anti-immigrant group associated with pro-Confederate terrorism. Armed with surplus Confederate ordnance, the gang of about a hundred men, some on horseback, terrorized the community's 250 residents, several dozen of them Chinese and European immigrants, and their children, and a few blacks. The minorities were all rounded up and taken hostage, and several were killed, including an elderly African-American freedman, and a 10-year-old Chinese immigrant boy. The “White Crusaders” continued causing trouble until about 11 a.m. on the 23rd, when the territory's militia intervened and rescued the town. The firefight that followed resulted in the deaths of 15 of the “Crusaders”, one of them a relative of a prominent Democratic former Congressman from Missouri.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Paducah(May 2nd-4th): This battle actually took place just to the southeast of the aforementioned town. Most notable for the death of Gen. Nathaniel Lyon the evening the battle ended, of injuries sustained on the 3rd.[Gen. Lyon, it should be noted, was the first General to have perished in our reality's U.S. Civil War]
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Fort Connor(May 26th-27th): This battle took place in the southeast of the Indian Territory[later Oklahoma], near one of the Union's newer military outposts. The fort was destroyed and it's surviving inhabitants imprisoned.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Tucson (Jun. 20th-22nd): Confederate General Clement Vallandigham made a run towards this small Arizona village; just outside of town was a U.S. Army barracks where Lt. General Robert Patterson had headquartered for his current operations. The battle lasted three days, and although Vallandigham took heavier than expected losses, still managed to defeat Patterson, who made the call for those men who were alive and hadn't been captured, to retreat back to California.
U.S. Civil War-The Orange Grove Incident(July 3rd): A contingent of about two dozen members of the Grey Devils, all on horseback, terrorized the town of Orange Grove, California, then located in Los Angeles County, during the afternoon hours; only a few hours prior, they had also robbed a general store twenty miles east of there and murdered it's proprietor, a German immigrant, and two of his three employees(one black and one a Yankee from Massachusetts). They were eventually driven off by the local state militias along with the county sheriff and several deputies, but not before a dozen more people had been killed.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Rocky Point(July 11th-12th): The only significant battle to have occurred in the Territory of Sonora. A small Navy outpost was located near there, which made the town an attractive target for the Confederates. Clement Vallandigham, accompanied by Andrew Humphreys, led the charge, and after a two day battle, captured the town, but not before the U.S.S. Webster fired a few parting shots at the Rebels, one cannonball actually coming close to killing Gen. Humphreys.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Yuma(July 20th-22nd): As Andrew Humphreys and Clement Vallandigham continued towards California, they came across the village of Yuma, Arizona, mostly comprised of Native Americans and protected by only a few Union volunteers. This battle, which took place mainly during summer rains in the area, likely would have lasted only a single day, where it not for an unexpected complication: some local Native warriors, nominally friendly to the Union, had heard of the approaching Confederates and launched their own attack. They were only a few dozen in number, but it took until the evening of the 22nd for them to finally scatter; a Confederate Colonel, John D. Massey, was one of 15 Confederates killed by the Natives.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Fort Pierce(Aug. 19Th): This was a short battle, and the last one of note before the Confederates' next major assault in the West. Fort Pierce was wrecked, and 70 surviving Union soldiers and their commander, junior Lt. Colonel Joseph Craydon, captured.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of San Diego(Sept. 2nd-11th): The most significant offensive of the Western Front of the Civil War, and would be the deadliest. Having managed to gain some extra supplies and reinforcements at the last minute, C.S. Generals Vallandigham and Humphreys were able to move out from Ft. Pierce on the 27th and make a run for San Diego thru the then largely uninhabited Cuyamaca Mountains area. However, though, because Lt. General Robert Patterson had warned of just such a possible attack, some preparations were made ahead of time, which would prove to be quite favorable to the Union. Vallandigham's men attacked first, as he ordered them to swarm Fort Travis, just outside of El Cajon, late on the morning of the 2nd. The first Union response came at around 3:00 p.m. when 500 men under Lt. Colonel David Johnson, subordinated to Colonel John Taylor, arrived to assist in the defense of the fort. The fort was overwhelmed, however, and Johnson's surviving men were forced to retreat back to the west. This would repeat several times until the Confederates were centered just 10 miles to the northeast of San Diego by the 5th. However, though, a saving grace for the Union came that very day in the form of 2,500 men lead by U.S. General Christopher “Kit” Carson from Los Angeles, including with extra supplies for the other Union troops as well. From then on, everything would go downhill for the Confederates. The most vital turning point came on the 7th when Union Col. Taylor's men were able to ambush the Confederates led by C.S. Colonel Jeremiah Worley, utterly obliterating them; Col. Worley himself sustained mortal wounds and would die the next afternoon. The rebels' morale slowly began to fall apart, and by the afternoon of the 11th, they had evacuated the area entirely, retreating back to Fort Pierce.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Coyote Creek(Sept. 18Th): This Baja California battle took place a week after the defeat at San Diego. 500 Confederates led by Colonel William Fike, under General Andrew Humphreys, were ambushed by a group of Union volunteers and some Native American allies. The Confederates were defeated, and Col. Fike surrendered to the Unionists.
U.S. Civil War-The Raid on Rowlett Creek-(Sept. 24th): One of the bloodiest incidents in East Texas during the war. Just about 11 miles due northwest of Rockwall, a small Union garrison of about 4 dozen soldiers, of roughly half volunteers, half regulars, was brutally attacked by members of the Sons of Tom Green about 40 minutes after noon, killing thirty of them. They then engaged in an impromptu terror raid up and down Rowlett Creek; although it lasted just a few hours, they killed a dozen civilians, including a black freedman and one of his sons, before a few deputies from the Dallas & Collin County Sheriff's Offices and members of the state militia drove them off, just after sundown.
U.S. Civil War-The Buenaventura Massacre-(Sept. 26th): Members of another pro-Confederate mercenary group, the Devil Dogs, headed up by David S. Terry, a Mexican War veteran and failed lawyer from Arkansas, and assisted by the El Paso branch of the Army of Gadsden, and about 200 auxiliary Confederates under Sgt. Thomas Bingham, engaged in pursuit of a group of Mexican fighters & some Natives, who had attacked a camp just outside of El Paso a couple days prior, and killed a Confederate Lt. Colonel, as they fled through eastern Sonora, and south thru the border & into Rio Bravoan Chihuahua, until they reached the town of San Buenaventura. Sgt. Bingham demanded to speak with the mayor of the town, who showed up promptly. Bingham then asked him if he had seen the men they were looking for. The mayor informed him that he had not, and then asked him to leave. Bingham, however, soon discovered that they had indeed been there. A furious David Terry later assassinated the mayor and ordered his own men to start ransacking the town. He also ordered that a hundred hostages be taken as punishment for the mayor's deception.....or nearly a tenth of the town's whole population, and to begin shooting them, one every two minutes. But just as three quarters of the hostages had been killed, just before sundown, members of the Rio Bravoan military arrived on site, catching the ransackers completely off guard, and causing them to hurry out of town. And when one captured adjutant of Bingham's admitted his nation's complicity in this attack, it was the final straw for the Rio Bravoan government; three days later, they declared war on the Confederate States on behalf of the Union.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of San Angelo(Oct. 18th-19th): The battle that cut the Confederate occupation in half and led to the collapse of the Western front. Occupied since October of the prior year, San Angelo, then a town of about 2,500 residents, had once been a small town that wasn't all that important in the scheme of things, compared to other West Texas communities such as El Paso or San Antonio. It did, however, have the South Pacific Railroad running thru town, which would prove to play a role in what was to come. The small Confederate troop of about 1,200 was led by Lt. Colonel Edmund Smith of the Army of Kentucky, demoted after the failure at Mt. Carmel in December, and was not aware of the trouble that lay ahead. On the afternoon of the 18th, two Union cavalry divisions, headelld up by Lt. Colonel Joseph Allen, arrived just outside of town and several of them attacked some of the Confederate sentries, killing twenty of them, crippling Smith's early warning network. But this was just a preview for the real act. Late that afternoon, a Union detachment of about 1,600 men boarded a commandeered train in the town of Granbury, East Texas, about 170 miles away. The train made a stop near Castleberry[about five miles northeast of the real world Coleman, TX], at about 9 p.m., before their disembarkation at around 5 the next morning. They arrived just outside San Angelo not long after sunrise, and waited for the Rebels to stir. And when the first Confederates spotted them, the Yankees opened fire. This was a truly nasty surprise to C.S. Lt. Colonel Smith and his men as they hadn't expected a full-blown battle so early in the day.
The battle lasted for just over ten hours, and when it ended, had clearly been a humiliation for the Confederates: not only had they been caught off guard, but had also been outgunned and outmanuevered, with 300 losses compared to 180 men for the Union. Lt. Colonel Smith surrendered, and was imprisoned in Rock Island, Ill., for the remaining duration of the war.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Clarksville(Nov. 2nd-4th): This important battle resulted in the collapse of most of the Middle Tenn. Confederate resistance. Union Lt. General William Mahone, now well known for his successes in Virginia and East Tennessee, had been transferred to Bowling Green, Ky., from Richmond, the month prior and had been tasked with driving C.S. General Jubal Early out of the Clarksville area to help the Union take control of more of the Tennessee River, so they could re-take Nashville, and re-install the Union government of that state.
Mahone's force of about 5,000 men was backed up by Colonels Frank Wolford, of the Kentucky 3rd Army, and William C. Oliver, of the Illinois 7th Army, with 2,500 men each. Advancing to the southeast from their position on the south bank of the Little West Fork, they reached Clarksville at about 3:30 p.m. on the afternoon of the 2nd. Only 20 minutes passed, however, before the Confederates fired on the Yankees and the battle had begun.
During the first half of the battle, most of the fighting was done across the Red River[not to be confused with the one in OTL N. Dakota or the TX/Okla. river; this is a tributary of the Cumberland River], including with cannons; a few Union cannonshots on the 2nd managed to land just outside of town, including one that injured a few Confederates on the sidelines.
But the worst fighting began at around 10 or 11 a.m. on the 3rd as the Confederate line began to collapse, and the Unionists were able to make it over the Red River, and began to advance into town. From then on, the C.S. line began to collapse, and by noon on the 4th, General Early had lost about 1,500 men; He soon decided to cut his losses and flee to the South, with some of the survivors. One of his Colonels, Julius McCormick, had died, and the other, Wade Hampton, the former two-time South Carolina congressman, surrendered to Mahone and his men.
U.S. Civil War-The Raid on Santa Fe(Nov. 7Th): The Devil Dogs terrorized the western half of the Union State of New Mexico during much of Nov., 1873; this was one of their worst atrocities. David S. Terry, the leader, was in hiding in Utah at the moment, so to lead up this raid, was Andrew Jackson Green, a son of the late Thomas J. Green. Green's two dozen men, all on horseback, decided to make the state capital of Santa Fe, then a small town of only 4,500, their target. This raid, like so many others, was also racially motivated; only this time, the Hispanophone population was the main target. The attack really only took place between 4 and 5 p.m., but resulted in the murders of ten people, including an Anglo from Illinois who died trying to protect his family; his wife was a Mestizo Mexican. Luckily, the local militias were able to intervene in short order before any more damage could be done; four of the Devil Dogs were killed by gunfire and several others were captured.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Blountville(Nov. 10Th): Short battle that probably would have remained obscure were it not for the wounding of Union Lt. General William Brownlow; his injuries eventually resulted in his death from complications in February of the following year.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Jackson, Tenn.(Nov. 14Th-15th): This West Tennessee battle actually had little direct effect on the town it was named after; most of the actual fighting took place in between the forks of a local stream by the name of Brown's Creek. Union General William T. Sherman's 16,000 men were able to overwhelm a force of 4,000 led by C.S. Colonel James Bilbo, who fell back to Jackson, and then back to Wolf Creek, on direct orders from the C.S. War Department, to join Generals Joseph E. Johnston, Milledge Bonham, and William Davis in the Memphis area, for an anticipated significant Union offensive against that city.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Elizabeth City(Nov. 18Th): Notable for the death of Colonel John Martin, former Kansas congressman, of wounds sustained late in the fighting, on the morning of the 19th.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Memphis(Nov. 22Nd-27th): The last major engagement between the Unionists and the Confederates in 1873. Union Generals William T. Sherman and Samuel Pomeroy consolidated their forces near the Wolf River area on the 20th and planned out their move towards the port city of Memphis; they would begin moving out on the 21st, and by the end of that day, were now just 10 miles east of the city.
Memphis, at this time, was a growing port city of almost 40,000 people, that had been thriving on Mississippi River trading[Although this is actually slightly lower than it's real world population at that time]. Nearly 40,000 Confederate troops were stationed in and around the city, as this was an important port for the Confederacy, and one they couldn't afford to lose.
The Union forces arrived just outside the city on the late morning of the 22nd. The 26,000 men under Sherman and Pomeroy had a dozen artillery companies, and one hundred and twenty cavalrymen, amongst their ranks, and many of them were skilled veterans of prior battles, whereas the C.S. force was mostly comprised of men who had only recently been conscripted; this would prove to be favorable to the Union later on.
The initial fighting took place near a large plantation owned by a Mr. Wickham, about 5 miles east of the city proper, when the forward troops of C.S. Colonel Edmond Rhett, serving under General Johnston, opened fire on the advancing forces of U.S. Colonel William Oliver, placed under Sherman's command, who promptly responded. These Confederates beat a hasty retreat back to Memphis on the 23rd not long after Colonel Rhett was killed by sniper fire. The Unionists followed and a couple of hours later, encountered a larger force headed up by Colonels Samuel Maxey and Evander McNair just outside the city limits.
The fighting that followed from then on would be nothing short of intense; the Unionists had a great deal of trouble advancing any further, for the next couple of days, due to the rather stiff resistance put up by the Confederates. To try to turn the tables, General Sherman, on the 24th, ordered that his artillerymen begin bombarding the C.S. forces, and certain buildings within the city of Memphis, if possible, including known gunpowder stores and other military structures to be used by the Confederates. This tactic seemed to be ineffective at first, but as more artillery bombardments continued, the C.S. defenses began to falter, and they fell further back into Memphis, proper.
The battle continued for two more days. until Nov. 27th. And on that day, a Unionist cannonball destroyed a particularly large gunpowder store in the area, killing several dozen Confederate men, including Colonel William Preston, and two other officers. But it didn't end there; that gunpowder store just happened to be next to some storage for munitions, and a whiskey store, both of which were also subsequently destroyed. And by the time the Unionists realized the magnitude of what had just happened, a fire had begun to spread rapidly in that corner of the city. Many of the surviving Confederates began to flee, and the fighting stopped within two hours. Union General Sherman ordered his men to evacuate as many civilians and wounded Confederates out of the city as possible, and Gen. Pomeroy ordered his own men to assist Sherman's efforts.
The city of Memphis would burn for 2 more days, but General Sherman's efforts to save lives minimized casualties, compared to what could have been. And with the loss of Memphis, and the destruction of it's port, came yet another heavy blow to the Confederate cause.
U.S. Civil War-Ambush at Gatlin Gulch(Dec. 26th): Andrew Humphreys was caught almost totally off guard when he and some of his remaining men were ambushed at Gatlin Gulch, not far from El Paso. The ambush was so damaging that Humphreys decided to cut his losses and head out east, abandoning his subordinates in El Paso; three days later, they would all surrender.
Other events of the year-
March 31st-Polish War of Independence Begins: After years of neglect by the Russian Empire, and months of open rebellion, a formal war of liberation began in Poland, as revolutionaries coalesced around the organizations of Władysław Niegolewski, Apollo Korzeniowski, and Antanas Mackevičius, amongst others; this was the day in which the Czestochowa Compact was signed.
May 4th-A Schleswigian cargo ship headed for the Confederacy is intercepted by the U.S. Navy, and is sent back.
July 13th-Another ship of German origin, this one named the Freistadt Hamburg, is found by the Unionists attempting to dock in the Confederacy, but it's captain defies orders to turn around. And decides to try to run the blockade. A U.S. Navy ironclad sinks the ship, and it's surviving crew are captured and kept prisoner in Pennsylvania for the duration of the war, before they are sent home to Germany. The U.S. later pays a small compensation to the families of those sailors who were lost.
On September 2nd, representatives of the Austrian government meets with representatives of the Polish rebels and quietly agree to allow some arms to be sent to them.....at least for the moment, anyway. Representatives of the German government offer a similar deal, just two weeks later. The Poles take both deals, as they'll need all the help they can get.
Aleksander Głowacki(alias Bolesław Prus), the Polish writer turned revolutionary, dies in battle with Russian forces near the city of Biala, not far from Russia proper, on November 20th. [Thus, works that some may recognize such as “Pharaoh”(1895), don't come into existence as in the real world. There are some rough equivalents, however.]
As the Civil War began to wind down, it was becoming clear that the Confederates were losing. In a last ditch attempt to save their country, the C.S. government, in January, ordered a mass mobilization of all of their available forces to the border regions; the Union, meanwhile, had responded with a similar offensive of their own. As of January, Union Generals William T. Sherman, Samuel Pomeroy, David Farragut, Winfield Scott, Jr., Philip M. Dallas, George G. Meade, Philip Sheridan, and William Rosecrans led the Deep South effort(Rosecrans was in Florida), while Ambrose Burnside, “Kit” Carson, George McClellan, Joshua Chamberlain, and Henry H. Sibley headed up the Union advance on the Western Front.
As Confederate resistance became more desperate, so, too, did the attacks by various pro-Confederate terror groups become more vicious.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of the Lakes(Jan. 7Th-9th): The first battle of the year took place in south central Florida, in the Lake Placid area. Only occasional skirmishes had taken place in the state since the first Union landings; only the northern half of the state was considered to be terribly strategically important, and the Confederates were more occupied with West Texas and Illinois + Indiana as is. Now, however, the Confederates sought to hold on to as much territory as they could. On January 2nd, Confederate Colonel Francis M. Tillman(elder brother of the now infamous would-be assassin, Benjamin Tillman)was dispatched to the area from his post in Haines City, following the main road to the town of Lakeville. Tillman arrived on the afternoon of the 7th, and just before sundown, several dozen of the Confederates opened fire on some of Rosecrans's forward sentries, killing ten of them. The battle that followed touched the shores of half a dozen lakes as the Yankees scattered their forces; the tactic worked well, and Tillman was forced to flee back to Haines City, having lost nearly 400 of his 1,000 or so men.
U.S. Civil War-The Battle of Mesilla(Jan. 24th-25th): General Adelbert Ames, previously known for his valiant efforts to rescue Virginia from total Confederate domination, was currently stationed in El Paso, West Texas, when he'd received a report of Confederate stragglers attacking Union soldiers on patrol just north of the city on the 20th. Ames and Colonel William Travis, Jr. left El Paso the next day with 1,000 men, and not long after they left, they themselves were fired upon. The Confederates fled after a few shots, and were spotted riding along the Rio Grande. Ames ordered his men to follow them; the trail ended just outside of Mesilla, New Mexico, late on the 22nd. Union scouts spent two days trying to find their attackers, but to no avail. But on the 24th, just as they were about to pack up and go home, rifle shots rang out just the first soldiers were headed out of town. Many of the stunned Unionists looked around in shock. And then another, much larger volley opened up; they had walked right into an ambush, from both Confederates and Devil Dogs. General Ames was badly wounded during the fighting, and Colonel Travis had to take over the command for his fallen boss. Eventually, the Yankees drove out the interlopers, having killed over half of them. After initial treatment, Travis personally escorted the General to a hospice in El Paso, where he would spend the next month recurperating from his wounds. For this heroism, President Chase personally recommended his promotion to General, and Travis was also awarded a Medal of Honor.
The Battle of Pecos Pass(Feb. 4th): Colonel(and soon to be General)William Travis's 1,600 men were ambushed by about a hundred Confederate stragglers and several dozen members of the Devil Dogs, on their way to Austin; 50 Yankees died that day, but almost an equal number of their attackers were also killed. The rebels were forced to abandon their plot and scattered outwards by about 3 p.m.
The Battle of Wharton(Feb. 11th-12th): Minor but somewhat intense battle that resulted in the destruction of much of the town. Confederate Colonel Thomas J. Sellers died when his position took a direct hit from Union artillery fire.
The Battle of New Orleans(Feb. 12th-18th): The liberation of New Orleans was a somewhat complex operation, and it required both Union Army troops and local anti-Confederate dissidents, mainly Cajuns & Creoles, as well some free blacks and escaped slaves. Union Lt. General Robert Patterson led the offensive starting near Galliano, already under the control of a few pro-Union volunteer militias(most of the official Union regiments from Louisiana having had to flee back to the Indian Territory), on the morning of Feb. 8th, while his fellow Lt. General, Patrick Mahan, directed his own troops to the northwest, along the Bayou Lafourche, on the same day. Patterson's men arrived just outside of New Orleans at around 10 a.m. on Feb. 12th; defending the city, were Confederate General Henry Clayton and his 8,000 troops, many of them veterans.
The city suffered thru several days of intense fighting and the desperate Confederates did everything they could to hold the city. But it just wasn't enough, and Patterson's surviving men were able to take New Orleans on the 18th, and General Clayton would surrender to Union forces a week later not far west of Baton Rouge.
The Battle of Thibodeaux(Feb. 15th-16th): This small southern Louisiana town became a battleground itself when Patrick Mahan's forces ran across a Confederate regiment led by Col. James Chesnut. Unfortunately, the battle resulted in a fire that later destroyed much of the town; as it turned out, the Confederates had actually caused it when they blew up a spare gunpowder store to prevent the Unionists from using it.
The Battle of Honey Creek(Feb. 21st): Disastrous loss for the remaining Confederates in East Texas; Union Lt. General William Travis steamrolled over the 800 men of Col. Isaiah Barnwell; Barnwell, a relative of the infamous Fire-Eater, Robert Rhett, would later die of injuries that he sustained during this battle, just two days later. Meanwhile, Travis's men would continue eastward with due haste.
The Battle of Davidson(Feb. 23rd-24th): This East Texas town was only lightly defended, but Confederate Col. Hiram Granbury and his men gave Union Colonel Fritz Teneger a rather tough time through it all, only ending when Col. Granbury was himself cut down by rifle fire. [Davidson is a fictional town, though right next to what was, and still is in our reality, the town of Columbus.]
The Battle of Tupelo(Feb. 25th-26th): Union victory; Confederate Colonel James Bilbo narrowly escaped death as his fellow Colonel, John Echols, was mauled and killed by a Union artillery shell, fired by the men of Union Colonel James Deshler.
The Battle of Richmond(Feb. 28th): This East Texas town was razed by the Confederates in an attempt to hamper the advances of Col. Fritz Teneger, as his men drove towards Houston.
The Battle of Houston(Mar. 5th-6th): The struggle over Houston was a far shorter battle than had been expected; the Confederates led by Colonel George Atzerodt had not been well supplied for the most part, as more and more munitions were needed to defend the Southron heartland. Atzerodt surrendered just a day after the battle had begun.
The Battle of Huntsville(Mar. 6th-9th): Union General George G. Meade led the assault on Huntsville, Alabama, as part of the drive to complete the Union take over of the Tennessee River Valley area. Trying to hold back the invaders were Confederate General Alexander W. Campbell, and Lt. Generals John C. Breckinridge & Matthew Butler with about 10,000 men, versus the 20,000 under General Meade on the Union side. The battle was an intense one, and Meade lost one of his Colonels, Austin Wright, to Rebel artillery fire. But the Confederates suffered worse losses, with both Breckinridge and Butler each losing a Colonel of their own. Eventually, with 2,800 of their men dead, or dying, General Campbell was forced to order a withdrawal from the area.
The Ambush at Norris's Farm(Mar. 10th): Two Confederate Colonels, Thomas Harrison and Walter Gwynn, were killed by pro-Union irregulars not far from the southernmost bend in the Tennessee River, on the farm of the Norris family.
The Battle of Muscle Shoals(Mar. 12th-13th): This assault was lead by Union Lt. General William Vandever, serving under George Meade, and was done to put the final nail in the coffin for the C.S.'s usage of the Tennessee River. Confederate Lt. General John T. Morgan attempted to defend the town, and although managed to inflict significant losses on the Yankees, still could not defeat them, and Morgan retreated further south to Russellville.
The Battle of Rosedale(Mar. 18th): U.S. General William T. Sherman's forces quickly defeated a small force of about 1,000 led by C.S. Colonel Mosby Parsons. Sherman also freed a number of slaves in the area, many of whom volunteered to join the Union Army as auxiliaries.
The Battle of Anderson(Mar. 21St-24th): Union General Winfield Scott, Jr. commanded about 30,000 men versus the forces of Confederate Generals Thomas Smith and George Johnston, numbering about 40,000. Although a hard-fought battle, Scott's men were able to cut the defensive in two and this forced Smith and Johnston to retreat, the former to Augusta and the latter towards Atlanta.
The Battle of DeWitt(Mar. 26th): A Confederate attempt to defend this town in southeast Arkansas ended with the deaths of Colonels John Gregg and Julius De Lagnel, and the retreat of Lt. General Johnson Hagood to the extreme southeast corner of the state, near Eudora, where he would later surrender.
The Battle of Cleveland(Mar. 30Th): U.S. Lt. General William Jay Smith, serving under General Sherman, led this battle that ultimately culminated in the destruction of the Mississippi town.
The Battle of Darlington(Apr. 2nd-3rd): U.S. Lt. General Eliakim Scammons died during this brief but intense battle in South Carolina.
The Sacking of Columbus(Apr. 4th-6th): A Union Victory, but a costly one: Lt. General Paul Oliver was gravely wounded by artillery fire on the last day of the battle, and died of his wounds six days later. General Samuel Pomeroy personally made arrangements for his body to be returned to his Pennsylvania home.
The Surrender at Laurens(Apr. 7th): Confederate General William J. Hardee voluntarily surrendered to U.S. Army Colonel Joseph Garrett at Laurens, South Carolina; the rationale he gave was that he realized he'd been fighting for the wrong side this whole time[a sentiment that, even with a somewhat more extreme C.S.A. than our own, was still shared by not a totally insignificant number of Southern fighting men at this point in the war; Hardee was escorted to Richmond, Va., and was later pardoned by U.S. President Salmon Chase.
The Battle of Cincinnati(Apr. 6th-9th): One of the last major battles between the Confederates and the Union in East Texas; this ended shortly after the death of C.S. General David Bozeman, after which his troops either surrendered to the Yankees or scattered out into the wilderness.
The Battle of Cowan's Meadow(Apr. 10th): William T. Sherman's forces were ambushed by Confederate stragglers just outside of a large plantation not far from Anguilla, Mississippi. The plantation was later occupied, and it's slaves, numbering some two hundred persons, were freed.
The Battle of Gadsden(Apr. 11th-12th): Union General George G. Meade personally led his men to victory here. The town was later pillaged of surplus food and money.
The Holly Bluff Incident(Apr. 16th): General Sherman's men would again be ambushed, but this time by a local militia calling themselves the “Defenders of the White Magnolia”; two Union Colonels, William Draper and Thomas McKean, were killed by them, and several dozen other men died as well. Sherman, for his part, allowed Lt. General William Nelson to burn down and pillage a pair of large plantations from which the attackers had planned their assault; it was reported some time afterwards that one of the plantation owners died from smoke inhalation and burns as his property was destroyed by the Yankees, aided by some of the revolting slaves.
The Surrender At Anniston & the Battle of Oxford(Apr. 19th): Two incidents of note happened on the same day. Confederate Lt. General William T. Martin(of no known relation to the late U.S. Colonel John Martin) surrendered to Union Lt. Generals Joseph Revere and Halbert Paine without resistance during the mid-morning hours. This would have turned out to be a rather normal day otherwise, were it not for the fact that C.S. Lt. General Howell Cobb and his fellow in rank, John P. McCown, ordered their men to charge towards Anniston at full speed; the swiftly-planned attack backfired, however, and Lt. General McCown was mortally wounded by Union artillery fire. Howell Cobb was himself forced to flee southwards with his remaining men.
The Battle of Vicksburg(Apr. 22Nd-26th): General Sherman came to Vicksburg on the 22nd to fulfill an important objective: capture the last of the Confederacy's significant Mississippi River ports. The city was well defended, with about 20,000 Confederate troops under the aegis of General Raphael Semmes. However, though, Sherman had the advantage of not just experience, but the fact that the Union now controlled most of the Mississippi River, except for the area immediately around Vicksburg. The battle proved to be one of the bloodiest in the entire war, with nearly 11,000 Union deaths attributed to the fighting, versus 9,800 on the Confederate side. General Semmes himself was captured and shipped to St. Louis, where he would be held for the remainder of the war.
The Bombing at Barstow(Apr. 24th): A bomb set by a pair of members of the Grey Devils was detonated at a U.S. Army barracks in the town, killing not only 50 Union soldiers, but several non-combatants as well, including a couple of Chinese and Mexican immigrants. The perpetrators were later caught near Fort Blythe on the 28th, trying to escape to Arizona and beyond; one of them later admitted that he had been a participant in the Indian Island Massacre in 1860. Both men were later executed for treason.
The Battle of Great Wootton(Apr. 26th): Named after the plantation on which Union soldiers led by General Carter L. Stevenson defeated the forces of Confederate Lt. General Henry Heth, who fled into Columbia during the night.
The Battle of Jacksonville(Apr. 27th-28th): The last battle of note within the state of Florida; Union General William Rosecrans was able to defeat the men of Confederate General Henry Lee, III, within just two days.
The Battle of Columbia(Apr. 28th-30th): The state capital of South Carolina was badly rocked by three days of intense fighting between the forces of U.S. General Stevenson, and the defending forces of Confederate General Nathan B. Forrest. Forrest was forced to capitulate and leave the city; one of his Lt. Generals, Arnold Elzey, had died in the fighting when a Union artillery shell landed right in front of the building in which he was headquartered. The loss of Columbia would prove to be a mortally crushing blow to the morale of many C.S. soldiers, as many South Carolina state officials had been captured before they could leave the area.
The Henderson Incident(May 3rd): This ambush of Union forces in this small East Texas town, not far to the southeast of Tyler, by Confederate stragglers only lasted a few hours, but resulted in the death of General George McClellan when a stray bullet hit him on the top of his head. The man who coordinated the ambush, a former C.S. Army Sergeant named Thomas J. Fike, was executed for the act on the orders of one of McClellan's subordinates.
The Battle of Natchez(May 4th-5th): With all but a few Confederate forces cleared from Louisiana, Union General “Kit” Carson made his next move towards the city of Natchez, to ensure that the Confederates truly would be cut off from the Mississippi once and for all. Confederate Lt. General William Y. Slack, formerly a two-term Congressman, was defending the city with about 10,000 men. Unfortunately for the C.S., however, Slack proved to be a substandard commander, and he surrendered on the evening of the 5th, realizing he'd been beat, with nearly 3,000 Confederate deaths. This battle is also notable in another respect, because there were several hundred Rio Bravoans also present in the Union effort.
The Battle of Gainesville(May 6th-7th): As Union General David Farragut closed in on Atlanta, the men of C.S. Lt. General Arthur P. Bagby attempted to defend their position at Gainesville.
The Battle of the Tallapoosa River(May 10th-12th): General George Meade's men came across the 10,000 men serving directly under Confederate General Clement H. “Rock” Stevens, while they were headed towards Montgomery, the state capital of Alabama, and the former capital of the Confederacy[The capital had been unofficially moved to Macon, Georgia at this time, on April 17th, 1874]. Meade's men were able to fend off the Confederates, and moved on to the west.
The Battle of Alexander City(May 15th-16th): Confederate Lt. General John B. Villepigue, a former Alabama state Senator, died during this battle.
The Battle of Foster's Bridge(May 16th): The Union forces of U.S. General Philip M. Dallas had moved thru Tuscaloosa on the 12th, not only without resistance, but were actually welcomed as liberators; the Tuscaloosa area had been a hotbed for Union sympathizers in Alabama, and there were several incidents involving Confederate soldiers and dissident citizens in the town, over the past couple of years.
Meanwhile, Confederate Lt. General Theophilus Holmes had been ordered to intercept the Unionists and had just come across Foster's Bridge, crossing what was then the Black Warrior River, when they spotted Dallas's men. However, though, Holmes had not been fully prepared to actually engage in combat, and due to low supplies, was forced to disengage and fall back to Demopolis.
The Battle of Cherry Bluff(May 18th): An attempted ambush of the forces of Union General Samuel Pomeroy failed here.
The Sacking of Savannah(May 19th-20th): An ambitious gamble by William Rosecrans that paid off. With some help from the Union Navy, the Marines were able to storm & neutralize the port of Savannah, and the Yankees took over the city after only two days of fighting.
The Battle of Atlanta(May 21st-24th): One of the final humiliating losses for the Confederacy. General David Farragut's men faced off against those of C.S. General George Johnston, which ended with Johnston losing almost half of his force of 15,000. Johnston would surrender to Union troops the following day.
The Battle of Charleston(May 26th-28th): Union General Francis J. Herron scored a majorly decisive victory for the Union when he was able to seize the city of Charleston from the Confederates, and General Wilmot de Saussure. Although the Union suffered significant losses, the Navy, once again, proved to be quite helpful; the Confederates attributed perhaps as many as two-fifths of their losses to the Navy bombardments.
General De Saussure himself was gravely wounded on the 28th when a Union Navy shell landed right in right of his headquarters, mauling him and killing more than 3 dozen others; he would himself perish on June 8th from his own wounds.
The Battle of Montgomery(May 28th-31st): The battle for the now former (unofficially) Confederate capital would perhaps be *the* final nail in the efforts of the Southern rebellion. Union General George Meade had 40,000 men at his immediate disposal, including 10,000 volunteers, many of them dissident Southern Unionists. Defending Montgomery were 48,000 Confederate soldiers under General Samuel Cooper, himself a veteran officer. The Union attack initially began on the western and eastern outskirts of town, on the 28th, having just crossed a couple of minor bridges along the Alabama River. The Confederates were initially able to inflict a rather staggering amount of damage on the Yankees, and General Meade had concerns about the viability of the strategy. However, though, Confederate morale, already not in the best of shape, fell sharply when popular Lieutenant General, Henry Allen, was mauled by a Union artillery shell. Things went downhill from there, as the Confederates became increasingly mired in desperation and tactical mistakes. By the afternoon of May 31st, it was all over; 12,000 Unionists were either dead, or dying, but the Confederates had sacrificed nearly 16,000 men for the defense of Montgomery, and the former capital was now so badly wrecked that even few longtime residents could really recognize the place. General Cooper would surrender to George Meade that same evening, as did many of the good number of Confederate federal officials who had opted to remain in Alabama for the duration of the war.
The Battle of Brunswick(June 2nd-4th): Brunswick, Georgia, was the last of the C.S.A.'s operational seaports, anywhere in the country; losing it would have surely doomed whatever was left of the Confederacy's already badly devastated Navy. In an attempt to hold on to the city, Confederate Generals William Wirt Adams and James E. Harrison were tasked with 46,000 men. Meanwhile, U.S. Lt. Generals Meredith Solomon and John Newton, serving under Generals Rosecrans and Stevenson, respectively, with 30,000 men on their side, had moved into position to the north and southwest of the city, in an attempt to create a successful pincer movement, thus cutting the Confederates off from any outside help.
With John McDonald stepping down in March of the prior year, many in British Columbia begin to wonder if staying with Britain proper was such a good idea. In April, a two-part referendum is submitted to the government in Langley[Not OTL's Vancouver, by the way.], one for separation from Britain and one for possible annexation into either the United States or Canada.
On June 19th, William Lloyd Garrison, recently elected Republican Senator from Missouri, submits a bill for a constitutional amendment permanently ending slavery in the United States by no later than 1879. The bill finds significant amounts of bi-partisan support[outside the still largely occupied former Confederate states, which, apart from Louisiana and Tennessee, have not regained proper statehood as of yet.], and by July 21st, is able to receive the three-quarters of support it needs when the state government of Arkansas ratifies the bill. The 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution goes into effect on Sept. 2nd, and, apart from ending slavery, also guarantees that all African-Americans eligible for the vote will be affirmed the right to do so, regardless of their residence.
The United States celebrates the Centennial of its founding this year. Many hope that there will never again be another Civil War.
Kangaroo Kelly, the up-and-coming Australian outlaw, gets into a shootout with and kills two constables near the small town of Tamworth in New South Wales on September 23rd. The news makes headlines across the Dominion of Australia.
U.S. Presidential Elections, 1876: The Republican Party continued to thrive as the Democrats faltered in Congress. Incumbent President Benjamin Bristow declined to run, but endorsed Illinois Senator John Sherman for the office. On the Democratic side, that party ended up nominating Samuel Randall from Pennsylvania, after a long and drawn-out primary. Ultimately, despite the respect many still afforded to ex-president Lovell Rousseau, the fact that the [non-secessionist] Democrats had so badly bungled things domestically on the Congressional level prior to the Civil War still made their re-election nearly impossible at this point. Sherman won every single Western state[Even Missouri!], and a large majority of the rest, with only Tennessee, Florida, Virginia, Kentucky, and Pennsylvania voting Democratic.
David S. Terry, the founder of the notorious “Devil Dogs” terror group, is shot dead by the Apache warrior Geronimo in the Nevada Territory, just outside of Elko, on November 22nd.
On December 29th, former U.S. President Robert J. Stockton dies of heart failure in San Francisco, California.
In February, a legal dispute between the U.S. territories of Arizona and Nevada begins over some land south of the 37th parallel, west of the Colorado River, claimed by both, including around the area of the tiny pueblo of Las Vegas.
With it's independence assured, the Polish Republic elects it's first government, of a President, and Prime Minister.
Lord John Russell, Prime Minister of the U.K., dies in his sleep, aged 85, on 28 July[only a year removed from the real world]. The more popular Liberal, Benjamin Disraeli, replaces him.
On 8 October, Henry Ward, the husband of Mary Ward, is killed in a freak boating accident on the River Thames only a few miles from London. Mary will remain a widow for the rest of her life.
The colonial government of British Columbia is dissolved on Nov. 22nd, as 52% of people in the colony voted for such. However, though, there still remains the question of whether or not British Columbia should remain independent, or become an American state, or enter Confederation with Canada. Quite a few assimilationists in the southern half of B.C. are pro-American, but many in the North are pro-Canadian in their leanings.
On April 14th, Arizona is admitted as the 39th U.S. state, with a population of only 63,000.
John Preston, a 30-year-old American machinist from Kansas, and a Civil War veteran, presents an improved version of Richard Gatling's machine gun from 1866, to the U.S. Patents Office. It is well-received by the military, and thus, the “Preston Gun” is born[this is an analogue to Hiram Maxim's design from 1881 in our reality; Mr. Maxim has joined the U.S. Navy here].
Napoleon Bonaparte, the second, the son of the former French Emperor, dies in August after a long illness in Ajaccio, Corsica, aged 67. He is given a state funeral[Whereas in our world, he passed away in 1832, at the rather young age of 21, of tuberculosis].
On September 6th, a young Irishman named Patrick O'Sullivan is killed during a scuffle with constables in Dublin. This will prove to be one of the spark of many a trouble in that region for three whole decades to come.
On October 4th, Orestes Brownson, the once-respected American conservative writer, and two-time Republican Indiana Congressman, dies in Chicago, Illinois, aged 76. His son, Orestes Junior, is, at this time, serving as an Iowa senator(also a Republican).
A major hurricane[roughly a Category 4 on the Saffir-Simpson scale to OTL eyes] devastates a large swath of British India on October 24th, killing over 100,000 people and wrecking the cities of Dhaka and Chandernagore particularly badly. The British response is slow and cumbersome and this ticks off many protests across the region.
Andrew Jackson Green, the notorious American outlaw and inspiration behind the “Sons of Tom Green” pro-Confederate militia group, robs a bank in the town of Gatlin, California, on November 6th, shooting the teller and knifing both a teenage Chinese-American boy and a Mexican immigrant woman to death, as other terrified patrons flee the establishment. Green soon leaves the scene himself and tries to hide in the wilderness of the Mojave Desert, although he is caught on Christmas Eve.
Also, during this year, the cities of Concordia, Tennessee, and Manchester, Alabama, are founded as “New Cities” by Northern, and ex-Southern Unionist entrepreneurs, respectively[Concordia is located on the site of where parts of Knoxville used to be, and Manchester, Ala. is OTL Birmingham. At this time, many Southern cities are being rebuilt to the whims of largely Northern and Midwestern developers].
William Porcher Miles, the former diehard secessionist, is found dead in his South Carolina home on January 8th, of multiple deep and bloody stab wounds. The identity of his killer is not known for some time.
In February, Joseph Land, a young prospector originally from White County, Ill., strikes upon a silver lode with a cousin and a couple of friends of his, in the Colorado Territory. The strike helps trigger a large drive towards settlement in Colorado, and within just a few months, the territory's population almost quadruples, speeding up the territory's admission to statehood.
After a couple of years' worth of deliberation, the 15th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified in April, with the state of providing the critical. The Amendment states that anyone born on U.S. soil is eligible for citizenship regardless of where they were born, and that such citizenship may not be denied on the basis of ethnicity or religion.
The first electric trolley is built for service in San Francisco, California, in September of this year.
On September 20th, Canada's first President dies in his sleep at his home in Lakeland[Sudbury], Ontario. Several heads of state, including not just the current President of Canada, but also U.S. President John Sherman, amongst others, attend his funeral.
On October 16th, 52% of voters in the Republic of Cuba vote to allow the country to become an Associated Commonwealth of the United States. Not long after this, a good number of mainly white mainland Americans begin to filter down to the region to start new lives there.
Francis Trevethick, Jr., the grandson of British railroad pioneer Richard Trevethick, hears of the success of the first-ever automobile in the United States, and wishes to study the vehicle. So, in August, he travels to the United States, and happens to meet up with the young man who built the world's first car, on November 12th. Bringing some of his documentation back home, he decides to consider expanding the family business.
At this point in time, there are a significant number of European immigrants trying to find new lives in many places across the world; many go to the U.S. and Canada but others land in more far-flung places such as Argentina, New Zealand, Australia, and even South Africa.
Australia and Argentina in particular begin to experience quite significant, and eventually, perhaps even radical changes due to this significant emigration.
The first successful commercial steam car is sold in Britain in April of that year. There are many imitators that pop up shortly afterwards.
On June 2nd, a major early summer flood, coming after a chillier, and snowier, than normal spring, wipes out several small settlements along the Yenisei River in Russian Siberia; over 180 people are killed, and 8,000 are left homeless.
A controversial article is penned by Australian reporter John Cooper in a Sydney, New South Wales newspaper on July 25th, voicing concerns of a possible split in Australian society as many of the disparate regions of the country are already developing rather significantly differently from one another .
After years of quarrels over various problems and controversies, many Australians hope that their country may become a Commonwealth after years of failures, as the Australian Commonwealth Act is shunted through the Parliament in Canberra in April. Unfortunately, however, these hopes are eventually dashed: The referendum fails to gain the majority of votes it needed to pass.
The state of Ohio passes it's own immigrant residency restriction law on June 20th; though not so much explicitly ethnocentric as anti-Catholic in nature, the law is still rather restrictive, and individual communities and counties are given the option to ban new foreign-born Catholic arrivals from settling in their jurisdiction at all; many counties and townships will do this over the next five years. Meanwhile, around this same time, the state of East Texas also passes it's own law, that also allows individual counties and communities to limit the settlement of immigrants of certain ethnicities, and/or Catholics in general, from residing there.
Empress Elizabeth of Austria-Hungary suffers a stroke on September 24th, causing immediate concern for her health.
The U.S. Presidential Elections, 1900: By the dawn of the new century, Patrick Wilkinson had become highly popular within the Democratic Party, and was almost unanimously re-nominated(with a few mostly Southern protest votes going to Ezekiel Williams, a conservative businessman from Arkansas). The Republicans nominated a former governor of Delaware by the name of Johnathon Matthews, with Indiana Senator Torrance Moxley as his running mate; although Moxley was popular, Matthews was a virtual unknown, which would prove problematic for their party in this year's elections.
The Progressives, although they still had a fairly significant representation in Congress, didn't have many particularly outstanding choices this year, so they ran Alexander Buckley, the former mayor of San Jose, California, and a popular theater owner, known for his philanthropy in the state.
Wilkinson didn't have quite the landslide he had in 1896 but still won a majority of the Northeast, Midwest, and Southeast, and East Texas, Oregon, Shoshone, and Cascadia + New Mexico(by only 39%, and 36% of the total vote, respectively, no less!) as well.
The Republicans fared somewhat better than in 1896, managing to win Arizona, Nevada, Colorado, Utah, Baja California, Victoria, West Texas, and all of the old Rio Bravo/Mexico Del Norte states, as well as Kansas, Cheyenne, Wyoming, Indiana, Michigan, Chippewa, Vermont, Connecticut, and Delaware, but still lost out to Wilkinson in the end.
Buckley was popular enough in California that he actually managed to get 39% of the popular vote in that state, and all but 2 of it's electors, and in Maine as well(a state which both Wilkinson and Matthews had basically ignored), but just couldn't match the purchasing power of the other two candidates.
A major anti-Italian demonstration is held in Milledgeville, Georgia, on March 17th, after a recently uncovered family of Sicilian immigrant squatters, the Biscaglias, refuses to leave their home on the south side of town. The demonstration lasts into the night and eventually turns violent during the mid-morning hours of the 18th, when the squatters curse at the mayor leading the protests. A police officer sympathetic to the protestors shoots 21-year-old William(Guglielmo), killing him. They are later burned out of their shack, and another member of the family, 13-year-old Marcantonio, is himself gunned down as they try to flee. The five surviving members of the family leave Georgia altogether, and continue to run until they reach Columbia, East Texas, a known sanctuary community not far from Houston. (The Biscaglia story later becomes nationally known as a feature in a television documentary series during the early 1970s.)
On May 23rd, the government of the Ottoman Empire introduces legislation severely restricting the movement and other freedoms of the members of the Armenian, Lebanese, Kurdish, and Mizrahi Jewish communities[Ashkenazim are not affected, but primarily because they are few in number, and many of them are of Austro-German extraction; Germany and Austria both continue to have fairly decent relations with Turkey at this time], following several incidents involving nationalist & separatist groups over the past three years.
An explosion at a Boston, Mass. brewery on July 8th kills over 120 workers, many of them Irish or Italian immigrants. An investigation later finds that the owner/operator had failed to keep this place up to the required standards for safety. However, though, when the local district court initially refuses to prosecute the case, a massive pro-labor protest breaks out in South Boston, where the incident had occurred, and soon spreads through the rest of the city and beyond. Eventually, the governor intercedes and the court case goes forward after all. Following this, the legislature of the state of Massachusetts passes significant revisions to existing workplace safety laws, and this inspires lawmakers in several other states, even Arkansas, to follow in those footsteps.
Queen Victoria, who ruled Britain for a grand total of 64 years, dies after a brief illness on September 22nd. Her first eligible relative, her cousin once removed, George William, takes the crown as George V[Victoria's eldest son, who reigned as Edward VII in our world, died in 1899 in Australia].
A rather late-season tornado touches down in northwest Ohio on November 10th. This tornado is also notable for its anticyclonic rotation, a rarity in the Northern Hemisphere, as well as the unusually cool temperatures in which it spawned; in Maumee, the closest town, it was no warmer than 57 degrees that day[Most tornadoes will typically spawn in air temperatures between 65 and 85 degrees Fahrenheit].
Elizabeth I, the Empress of Austria, dies on April 20th, after a heart attack in bed. “Sissi”, as the people had come to know her, was regarded as one of the most down-to-earth monarchs the nation ever had. Her nephew takes the throne as Francis Joseph II two days later. [Unfortunately, Empress Sissi's death also leads to an end in many of the policies that were holding the Empire together in its current form; Franz Josef II will not be as liberal as his late aunt was. And the recent annexation of Bosnia has already come with drawbacks of its own, only further complicating matters.] Also, in April, a Scottish inventor named William McAlpin Davidson, after 5 years of work, completes a fully-working prototype of an engine that runs without the need for spark plugs, but instead, on compression. Although a couple of similar engines had been proposed for a decade, Davidson's prototype is the first one with genuine practicality, and a real chance of seeing large-scale production. [This is essentially the equivalent of the Diesel engine of our world.]
In response to the treatment of the Lebanese, Italy opens its doors to people wishing to leave the Turkish Empire, and so do America and Canada. However, though, unlike the latter two, Italy also forbids Ottoman government officials from setting foot in their country, and the Turkish embassy in Palermo is closed on July 22nd.
Perhaps one of the most bizarre decisions ever made by the Ottoman government in modern times, was to create the Vilayet of Greater Syria, expanded from Syria proper, on September 23rd of this year, effectively causing (the formerly neighboring) Palestine to cease to exist as a separate region. It also absorbs Lebanon into it's borders, which sparks a significant amount of anger amongst the Lebanese, many of whom were already clamoring for greater autonomy within the country. Many from outside Turkey suggest that this was done as a (rather generous!) favor of sorts to leaders within the Syrian community in the country, many of whom are quite loyal to the Ottoman government in this day and age(some of whom have desired bringing the rest of the Levant under the aegis of Syrian culture, as supported by the Pan-Syrianist movement which had gained a significant of clout over the past 10 years.)
Former American President John Sherman passes away in Ohio on November 9th; as of this point of all the Presidents elected in the 19th century, only Charles Martin and the incumbent President, Patrick Wilkinson, are still alive; both statesmen attend their deceased comrade's funeral.
After several years of tensions and several months of on-and-off skirmishes, Russia and Japan officially declare war on one another after a Japanese frigate is destroyed off the coast of Korea, on March 27th.
An assassination attempt is made on the life of Russian Tsar Nicholas II in Moscow on July 15th. The plot fails, and it's mastermind, one Erik Lev'evich Kamenev, is tried and eventually executed, but not before fears of a wider conspiracy begin to spread throughout Russia, including rumors that the Japanese may be assisting the growing Marxist movement.....
On September 17th, Turkey attempts to seize several of Greece's easternmost islands following accusations that Athens was explicitly encouraging Armenian and Lebanese nationalists to operate from within those areas. The Greeks respond ten days later by sinking a Turkish destroyer known to be holding one of the sons (a noted anti-Greek agitator as of late) of a prominent Pasha as it's guest. The conflict that becomes unofficially referred to as the “Aegean War” begins on that day.
[As it turns out, however, it's later discovered that the Greeks actually had allowed for a few of these organizations to reside in their country, but had not given them any arms or any other forms of direct assistance; any such happenings were done by sympathetic individuals in their host communities, and, occasionally, by foreign aid groups, including one prominent outfit in New Jersey in the U.S., an area with a rather quickly growing Greek community.]
On April 18th, The Russian Navy suffers a devastating loss in the Sea of Japan, with a Japanese task force ambushing them in the middle of the night. Of the twenty Russian ships present, five are sunken, and a dozen more are significantly battered, to varying degrees. Over a thousand Russian sailors perish; however, though, this will be the last major victory for Japan in the Russo-Japanese War.
A cease-fire is brokered between Greece and Turkey, hosted in Berne, Switzerland, on June 27th, ending conflict over the eastern Aegeans. Tensions remain bitter, however, and fears remain that conflict could soon break out again between the two nations. Shortly after this, Greece strengthens their ties with Italy, France, and Serbia, accepting military assistance from all three.
The Australian city of Adelaide breaks out into an enormous riot on September 24th regarding the case of a Greek immigrant and his Irish wife 12 days earlier; the killer had been revealed as a particularly notorious local hoodlum with well-established “Old English”[basically, related to either nobility or some other person, or people of importance back in the U.K. proper] connections; the local police had declined to prosecute the case, and rumors had abounded that they were being paid off. All this contributed to the unrest, which lasted for nearly a week, until the Australian government finally stepped in and took control of the matter, strongly encouraging the replacement of those officers whom they felt were deficient in carrying out their duties.
The U.S. Presidential Elections, 1904: Although Patrick Wilkinson was still well-liked by many (Northern and Western) Democrats, he hadn't anticipated the economic recession which hit the country in late 1902, following the collapse of two major national banks. And unfortunately for the Democratic Party, a few of their top donors, and even several senators and congressmen, had been tied up in the scandal. Wilkinson attempted to distract from the issue by focusing on his own accomplishments, which served as a buoy for his appointed successor, Joseph Jennings, a popular senator from Illinois. Jennings, and his running mate, Albert Anderson, Congressman from Tennessee, sought to continue Wilkinson's programs, and expand on them. However, though, dealing with the increasingly incalcitrant Southern “Freedomite” Democrats, was becoming more and more difficult by the month.
On the other hand, the Republicans were still united for now, and were able to stay together, by and large. William Holley, the current governor of Kansas, was nominated by a factor of 7 to 10; his running mate, Sylvester Pennoyer, hadn't done well in the 1896 campaign in which he himself headed up the Republican candidacy, but was still well regarded by many. Holley was sympathetic to a number of Progressive causes (and had been friends with Charles Martin, himself a former President) and promised to throw them some bones in exchange for their support.
The Progressives, however, still ran their candidate; Anthony Mitchell, the head of the American Temperance Union, from the state of New Jersey, together with Robert Erickson, a Minnesota preacher and labor advocate, stumped for a more radical platform than the one from the election before. Mitchell, a known cannabis smoker, may have been best known, during this time, for a speech given to a hemp growing co-op in Colorado in August, in which he outlined his plan regarding the regulation of drug use in America, with stricter measures on “harder” drugs such as tobacco and alcohol, with softer drugs, like cannabis, handled with a lighter touch[partly as a response to the restrictive, or even totally prohibitionary anti-cannabis laws which had begun to be signed in some parts of the U.S.; Mississippi was the first state to sign such legislation, in 1893. By 1904, however, a couple of Northern states, namely, Ohio and Wisconsin, had also signed their own laws.].
As it turned out, Holley's campaign actually did better than expected; On top of most of the West, even East Texas and Louisiana went Republican. They also managed to win over Illinois, Ohio, Nebraska, and Maryland, and took home 70% of the vote in Vermont. Even without the “Big Three” of New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey, it was still enough for Holley to be catapulted over the top. Jennings, on the other hand, only got Minnesota[ironically, given Minnesota's lack of favorability to Democrats in most years, Mitchell's campaigning in that state actually allowed for a small 8,000 vote advantage there.], Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan[with only 40% of the vote!], and Indiana, as far as the Midwest was concerned. He couldn't even lock up the South, with the splinter Southern Democrats under the ticket of Josiah Underwood/James Duffield only taking 28% of the vote in Mississippi, their best state performance this year, but enough to deny Jennings a solid majority in all but North Carolina and West Florida[Holley had a fair amount of support in Florida, and Mitchell had his own supporters in Holguin and Havana], as far as the Deep South was concerned.
Mitchell still won Maine, as “Honest Al” Buckley had, but only succeeded in handing California to Jennings and wasn't even on the ballot in most of the Southern states. He would not, however, give up so easily, and would continue to try to run for office for at least the next five elections afterwards.
The last significant conflict between Native Americans and the U.S. government occurs in the state of Pahasapa during the month of February. It ends with the Hidatsa and Dakota Sioux signing a permanent treaty with the Feds, setting aside some land for them in the state. However, though, a number of the other Indigenous people of the area decide instead to buy some land in the state of Oklahoma, where there are more jobs, and there is, better income potential in general, to be found. A few other Hidatsa and Dakota still, join their Lakota and Nakota cousins in certain parts of western Canada.
Also, in February, the U.S. Congress approves legislation setting an official schedule for the setting of Daylight Savings Time[first considered in 1892 in this world, but never officially implemented in most areas, with a few exceptions, such as Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago, New York, and some others].
As the Russo-Japanese War winds down during the spring of this year, it starts to become clear that although Russia has essentially won, the victory has been a rather Pyrrhic one indeed. Many Russians feel that this was a complete waste of men and resources, and at a time when the government, in their view, should be trying to fix the mounting sociopolitical problems at home. On May 1st, a massive anti-war and pro-reform demonstration takes place in St. Petersburg, not far from the Tsar's palace. The military tries to keep the protestors back, but by the middle of the afternoon, however, it has become apparent that they are too large in numbers. Many of the demonstrators hope that things will continue on a peaceful course. The moment they reach Nevsky Prospekt, however, the officer in charge orders his men to begin opening fire. Tsar Nicholas, hearing the shots, panics upon the realization of what is happening, and begs Alexander Kolchak, one of the more respected members of Russian high society, to stop the shooting and to appease the crowd. Kolchak is eventually able to get the situation under control, but it's now quite clear that the Russian establishment is in a great deal of trouble. Nine days later, several of Russia's most significant revolutionary groups set up their first Soviet Council in Orenburg; there will be many more to come.
June 19th sees the establishment of the Italian-American Friendship Society, a Chicago based organization dedicated to promoting the understanding and appreciation of Italian culture within the United States, as well as a cultural exchange between the two countries; it is the first organization of it's kind in that country, and eventually inspires the creation of dozens of others.
On August 7th, the Danish Queen, Marianne, dies unexpectedly late in the night from natural causes. The Danish government, by personal request of Frederick VII himself, prescribes four days of national morning starting on the 9th.
A major hurricane makes its landfall just north of Jacksonville, Florida, with winds of over 170 miles an hour and storm surges as high as 18 feet, on the evening of October 27th. Over a thousand people are eventually killed by the storm, including over a hundred people in Yulee, Florida, as that town is virtually erased from existence. The eye of the storm later rides up thru Alabama, and into Tennessee, through Indiana and Kentucky, and up into Michigan before heading eastward through southern Canada, causing a major windstorm in Ontario and Quebec, as well as upstate New York and Vermont back in the States, on November 4th.
One of the worst earthquakes to have ever occurred on the American West Coast to date struck the city of San Francisco just after 5 a.m. on the morning of April 18th, devastating much of the city and several surrounding communities; as many as 2,500 people were killed by the direct effects of the earthquake, though the looting, occasional fires, and other related incidents, were responsible for another two thousand deaths.
On April 20th, the first ever African-American centered worker's union is created in Indianapolis, for people employed in the railroad industry. It makes history as the first ethnically centered labor union ever to have been founded in the U.S., and, as it's founder Thomas Bradleigh admitted, was splintered off from a larger union in the area, over concerns that black workers were not being given enough representation there. Some other African-Americans in the industry criticize the idea, however, fearing that anti-union interests could try to take much more advantage of racial lines in the labor movement, than has already occurred[and, unfortunately, this concern became all too true in our reality.].
Wilhelm II is subjected to an assassination attempt on June 22nd, at the hands of one Walther Bruckmann; Bruckmann, a 45 year old unemployed former carpenter from Lower Saxony, had been harassed by police over supposed connections to Marxist terrorists in Russia, and claimed that by seriously wounding, or killing the Emperor, that he could make a statement regarding what he saw as the beginning of the downfall of Germany. Bruckmann is later executed on July 31st, as his assassination attempt resulted in the death of a guardsman.
With the increasing unrest in Russia, Nicholas II begins to believe that there may be few choices left to him to save Russia from what he sees as its potential doom, if the revolutionaries are left unchecked. So, reluctantly, on September 22nd, he approves legislation from the Duma which effectively places Russia into a state of emergency.
In Augusta, Georgia, several dozen African-American and mainly Welsh and Irish immigrant voters were attacked and even shot at by angry members of the “Red Shirts”, a hardcore white supremacist group, as they were trying to cast votes for Republican and Progressive candidates on Election Day, November 6th. Over forty people were killed, including a couple of Federal Marshals that were stationed there. The “Election Day Massacre” horrified people throughout the country, even earning condemnation from some newspapers in Mississippi and South Carolina. President Holley strongly condemned the violence in public, and assembled a Federal task force to assist local and state police[well, at least those not already corrupted or hamstrung by the Freedomites and their ilk] in investigating the crime and bringing its perpetrators to justice.
[Please do note, by the way, that this is not a Star Trek reference: these Red Shirts were based on a very real and very nasty organization that originally started as a response to Reconstruction in Miss. in 1875. These Red Shirts have merely taken political violence to a somewhat higher level, is all]
On February 11th, three dozen members of the “Red Shirts” organization terrorized the primarily Scots-Irish community of Middlesborough, Ky., not long after their Christian County branch discovered that they had recently elected a Republican mayor known for his friendliness to immigrants and pro-labor policies. Mayor Terrance Collins and his wife were away on business in Nashville, but his two eldest sons, 17-year-old Thomas and 15-year-old Peter, were dragged out of their family home and shot to death, in front of dozens of terrified residents. They then continued their reign of terror for the rest of the afternoon, killing several more people, including a black man who was a well-liked janitor at a local tavern. Members of the Kentucky State Police and National Guard eventually took control of the situation, but not before a total of seven deaths had occurred. The “Red Shirts” who hadn't either been killed in firefights with or captured by the law, fled straight back to their Christian County headquarters. The news goes national on the morning after Valentine's Day and strikes fear into the hearts of many more moderate, and virtually all liberal, Americans.
The first commercial radio broadcasts are made in Chicago, in the United States, on April 9th of this year, between 10 am and 7 pm Central Time.
The “Red Shirts” strike again, this time in Cheraw, South Carolina, on April 30th; this small, primarily black community stood no chance fighting against the Red Shirts as they marched into town, disarmed the only two cops in town, and essentially took control of the whole community[Some echoes here of Craig Cobb's efforts to take over Leith, North Dakota, in 2013 in the real world]. Only on the 4th of July were they finally evicted from this jurisdiction, and by Federal Marshals at that.
On the morning of July 2nd, the Russian revolutionaries march on the city of Saratov requesting an audience with the city's mayor. The militia commander in charge of law enforcement in the city, however, orders them to leave. But just as they are beginning to do so, several of the Communists yell out a few of their slogans, facing the summer sky. This seems to energize many of them, and they stop retreating. The militia commander yells for them to surrender, and, just as that happens, one of his conscripts panics and fires a few shots into the crowd, killing a young woman named Natalia Kazanova. The Marxists yell out, “Murderers!”, and many of them draw their weapons; they begin to fire, and the militia commander becomes one of the first handful of casualties. The militia initially manages to hold the Marxists back, but they end up being so overwhelmed that many of them, including the panicked conscript who fired the first shot, just surrender altogether. It is here, that the Russian Civil War begins.....
On September 4th, Dallas, East Texas, becomes the first major U.S. city to be terrorized by the Red Shirts, as they shoot up, seemingly at random, various buildings in a primarily Czech and Catholic German neighborhood on the southwest side of town. Two pedestrians, a 14 year old boy and an elderly Bavarian immigrant, are killed, one of them in crossfire with local police. Also, on this same day, a hurricane with sustained winds topping 95 miles an hour landfalls near Newport News, Virginia, causing a significant amount of damage.
The nation of Norway, which had become independent from Sweden in 1899[A union that ended several years earlier than in the real world, 1905 to be exact.], loses it's first king, Olav IV, to a stroke on October 22nd. His son, Alexander Frederick, takes the throne as Haakon VII.
The rather suspicious November 15th shooting death of Irish nationalist John Donohue in County Armagh, Northern Ireland, leads many to wonder if someone in either the British government or one of the various rightist pro-Unionist outfits operating in the country as of late, were responsible for this. The real truth of the matter, shocks many when it is uncovered by an amateur reporter in Dublin.....
A historic blizzard strikes much of western Canada and the northern central United States during late February; as much as ten feet of snow falls in some areas of Cheyenne and Assiniboia within just a week. Totals exceeding 12 inches are eventually reported as far east as Owatonna, Minnesota.
While Greece is still on it's guard, a border incident occurs between Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire on April 25th, in which nine Bulgarian soldiers are killed. Two days later, Bulgaria warns Turkey of consequences should the event go further.
The Russian Tsarists suffer a crushing defeat at Kemerovo on June 7th, after their rear flanks are ambushed by an additional group of Marxists they thought had retreated outside the city. Three days later, Vladimir Sergey'evich Kornilov, the Russian general who had responsible for defending the city, is captured after another firefight nearby. And with this, the Violet Army's defensive in Siberia begins to simply just fall apart over the next few months, and Western Russia isn't far behind, either.
[For those wondering about the colors of TTL's Russian Civil War here, the “Whites” here are actually the moderate pro-republican & pro-reform, but anti-Communist Russians who are merely seeking to renovate Russian society. The “Violets”, as it were, are the Tsarist types, many of them reactionaries. They reject “Western” liberalism and seek to return to what they see as a “golden age”. And the Reds are the Marxists as in our world, as well as a few anarchists here and there up to their own thing.]
As Franz Jozef's rule becomes increasingly shaky, and increasingly illiberal, many of the minorities of the Austro-Hungarian Empire are becoming more and more restless. The city of Trst[yes, this is, in fact, Trieste, although this is what the Austrian government has called it since 1881 ITTL] is the scene of a major riot on August 12th, following the latest edict from the government of the province in which the city sits, effectively all but totally restricting the free movement of minorities in the area. The unrest only lasts for four days before being put down, but this proves to be the final spark for the rise of a long string of independence movements.....
A major hurricane, with winds exceeding 160 miles an hour and a storm surge of twenty feet strikes the western coast of the Dominican Republic on September 24th, devastating the coastal port town of Puerto Montijo in the Province of Azua[named for a recently deceased former president of the country, and located around what was & still is Puerto Viejo in the real world, now since subsumed into Pto. Montijo here] and killing over four thousand people in the country. Three days later, this same storm begins to ride up the southern half of the Eastern Seaboard of the U.S., and kills another two hundred people; Beaufort, South Carolina is almost totally wiped out by flooding thanks to rather torrential rains, and 90 mph winds and an eight foot storm surge also cause havoc throughout many of North Carolina's barrier islands.
(The town of Puerto Montijo eventually rebuilds, and will become a major city by the end of the 1950s; Azua de Compostela, however, never fully recovers. After several years of stagnation, and a more direct hit from another hurricane in 1915, the city refounds itself as just “Compostela”.).
The American Red Shirt terrorist organization engages in their boldest move yet: they attack ethnic neighborhoods in both St. Louis and Chicago, killing over fifty people, on the 3rd and 4th of October, although two other plots in Kansas City, Kansas and Detroit are halted by local authorities. President Holley, upon hearing of this, immediately orders the arrest and detainment of all of the members any known branch of the Red Shirts operating anywhere in the country, under the Subversion Act of 1874. By the end of November, as many as 40,000 Red Shirts have been taken into custody by the Federal government.
Also, later in October, the U.S. Supreme Court hears the case of Alabama v. Petalozzi, regarding the case of Alberto Petalozzi, an Italian immigrant who was evicted from his home in Pellyville, a town about 50 miles south of Huntsville, after the state enacted an anti-immigrant law in 1906. Petalozzi, who had moved to Alabama in 1898, sued against the law, which would have gone into full effect in 1909. The Supreme Court ultimately ruled, 7-2, that no state had any right to just totally eject immigrants from their jurisdiction. Though with no mention of county or city-level statutes, this effectively put the brakes on some of the worst legislated xenophobia in the United States. It also sparked a number of riots in several areas of the country, with the largest protests occurring in central Ohio and in Mississippi and Georgia.
The U.S. Federal Elections, 1908: William Holley, although respected by many in all three parties, had proven to be about as much of a controversial leader as Charles Martin had in the decade prior. Holley, however, was also criticized for not addressing the increasing problems with incompetence in the Republican Party. Regardless, however, both Holley and his Vice-President, Sylvester Pennoyer, were still nominated for their respective positions.
However, though, things weren't going so well for the Democrats, either, as many moderate Northerners and Westerners in the party continued to be put off by the ever-spiraling madness of many of the “Freedomite” Democrats. The mainstream Democrats decided to nominate a popular Delaware Senator by the name of Mark Cooper for the Presidency, and Matthew Pettis, a Kentucky businessman, for the Vice-Presidency. The splinter Southern Democrats ran one of their fiercest candidates yet; George W. Steadham, a wealthy Georgia plantation owner and factory owner. And for the Vice-Presidency slot, none other than the now infamous preacher, the Reverend William Butler Helms, was chosen, from Mississippi.
And despite their own malaise, the Progressives continued to struggle on anyway, nominating Martin Henries of New Mexico for the Presidency; William “Wild Bill” Carson, a popular novelist from the state of Colorado(and a relative of Kit Carson), was chosen as his running mate. Henries, although originally born in Missouri, was a popular figure in New Mexico, mainly thanks to his honest dealings while in the state Senate(and, also, for his highly regarded restaurant just outside of Albuquerque, which he often invited fellow members from both other parties.). Carson was more of a populist, however, and focused primarily on farming & ranching issues, as well as the controversy over precious metals which had been brewing as of late[The U.S., as of 1908, has been on a mixed gold-silver standard since 1875 ITTL, but it's significantly varied from administration to administration since then; whereas, in our world, the gold standard was solely predominant until 1971 in the U.S.].
The Republicans had braced for a possible disaster on their end, but they hadn't realized just how painful it was going to be: the progressive vote had been almost evenly divided nationally, and they lost almost 7 out of 10 voters in the West over all. Although Henries was a virtual unknown, he had managed to outright win a large number of the Western states, including Arizona, a state that the Republicans had lost only once before; and virtually all of the New South as well(excepting only Juarez and Tamaulipas, which went Democratic for the first time ever, though neither by a solid majority). He also won Cheyenne as well, by 54% of the vote.
Holley's home state of Kansas stayed loyal to him, with 48% of the vote going to the Republicans, despite the high popularity of Progressivism in his home state, but Colorado swung just barely into the Henries column, by only 8,000 votes. The Republicans also only barely hung on to Oregon and Cascadia, with 42.1% and 40.7% of the vote, respectively. Amazingly enough, Holley did manage to keep West Texas in the Republican column, despite the best efforts of Cooper and company, but only by a grand total of 4,800 votes. Most other places elsewhere, ended up leading to a disaster for the Republicans.
Mark Cooper, given the Party of Van Buren's nearly endless treasury, already had that advantage on his side; but the progressive split between the Republicans and the Progressive Party only made that more apparent. Outside of Holley's home state of Kansas, Cooper managed to win nearly every single other Midwestern state other than Wyoming(which, like Kansas remained staunchly pro-Republican), and even managed to snatch Illinois, thanks to not a few of the centrist and moderately right-leaning(mainly the former) Irish, Polish, and Hungarian Catholic, and German & Scandinavian[mostly Danes at this point] Lutheran voters in Cook County. And he also won Pennsylvania as well, with nearly 75% of the vote in Lancaster County in particular going his way, as well as with the support of much of the Swedish, German, Jewish, and even Ulster Irish communities in Philadelphia, and even a fair number of black Americans in Pittsburgh[who normally leaned quite Republican, as in many areas up until the end of World War II, IOTL.]. Only the continued disillusionment from a growing number of the people in the Greek, Italian, Irish Catholic, and the various Eastern European communities in New York and New Jersey kept the Republicans safe in those states. Cooper even won the states of Massachusetts and New Hampshire[quite a few Lutheran Germans and Jewish folks had settled in both states over the past 20 years, and many of them remained pro-Democratic, even in 1908.....at least, for now], as the Republicans held on only to Vermont and Connecticut in New England(Maine had *just barely* broken for the Democrats, by only 2,000 votes; Rhode Island went to the Progressives, with only 36% of the total vote). And despite losing the Deep South to the ever more nuisancial Freedomites, he still had little trouble locking up the rest of the region, including the state of West Florida, which broke to him by an astonishing 70 percent[well, astonishing ITTL, that is. In our reality, the Democrats actually regularly got at least around that much, if not more, at least when there wasn't a split ticket, anyway; although a good part of that is actually due to both disenfranchisement of primarily African-American, as well as other minority, and, to a lesser extent, poor white voters, as well as the fact that the Republicans were essentially all but totally forced out in many of these states, aided and exacerbated by a rather unbelievable amount of corruption all the while].
All in all, however, this was, by no means, quite a coup de grace for the Democrats....if anything at all, it would actually serve as their last hurrah, as their party continued to be torn apart from within, between the faux-populist, and primarily socially traditionalist and anti-regulation faction, increasingly coming under the strong influence of the Southern Freedomites in particular, and the pro-immigrant, pro-regulatory and mostly socially centrist(leaning slightly rightwards) mainstream Democrats, led primarily by Tammany Hall in New York, and the Italian-American machine in Chicago led by Tony Alberti, originally from Montreal and himself the son of Italian immigrants.
However, though, one particular note of interest in this year's election may have been the first successful election of an openly socialist candidate anywhere in the United States; Patrick Taylor, an Irish-American union manager in Aurora, Illinois, won election to the U.S. House in his district, with 48% of the vote in a four way race between a Republican, a Progressive, and an Independent candidate. Taylor, noted for his sympathy to civil rights and his support for gaining women the vote[women are already able to vote in thirty U.S. states, already, and support is quickly growing for universal suffrage to be made national], quickly becomes a national figure. However, though, eyes were also focused on another new arrival to the political scene, the American Liberty Party, as it's first governor, Deane Cameron, is elected in the state of Colorado this new party positioned itself as the “common man's” party, set apart from the Southern planters, financial barons and the urban machines of the Democrats, and the industrialists, ranchers and railroad tycoons behind the Republican Party.....as well as being more level-headed and pragmatic than the Progressives. Cameron's middle-of-the-road philosophy was so well-received that it genuinely shocked the rest of the country, and by the end of the year, many newspaper pundits from New York to San Francisco and back, began to speculate on just how far this new arrival onto the American political scene could really go.....
Meanwhile, in Russia, the Marxists continue to have a rather impressive amount of success; by the start of December, they now control most of the significant towns in Asiatic Russia save Alma-Ata and Vladivostok, amongst a few others, and are also coming quite close to taking the cities of Moscow and Tsaritsyn(Rostov had already fallen at this point and the Caucasus is itself being besieged by mainly Georgian and Azerbaijani nationalists, many of whom are strongly sympathetic to both of the anti-Tsarist factions). The Tsarist government, meanwhile, is on the verge of collapsing and many of the Filoletovsi' in particular fear the worst may come to pass if so; instead of sticking around, a number of the bourgeois Russians, Violet or not, simply pack up and leave the country altogether. Many will head to either France, Britain, Germany or Scandinavia depending on their connections, but some travel as far away as America or Canada. Whatever the case, it's now clear that the old Russian Empire is withering away, and about to pass into the history books.....
With Moscow officially under the administration of the now largely victorious Marxists, the New Revolutionary government decides that this city of over a million people will become the new capital for their state, on March 3rd. Soon after, with the Tsarists all but beaten down, the first Revolutionary Council meets in the city, and on April 22nd, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is officially founded.
On July 19th, Joseph Campbell, a Canadian wildlife researcher, notices a funnel cloud in the sky near the Perry River in Alaska, while trying to study some local deer; intrigued, he decides to photograph the event as it happens. The tornado eventually touches the ground for a few minutes before lifting back up into the sky. Satisfied with what he thinks would make for a good story, he catches a coach back to the nearest town, River Bend, and reaches it just before nightfall.
September 27th sees the death of Belgian King Albert II in Brussels. His youngest brother takes the throne as Leopold II on this same day.
[Also, around this time, a not terribly insignificant wave of Southern American immigration has begun towards South Africa, as it's one of the few British colonies that seems to be truly friendly to racialist conservatism, and the only one of those with any substantial wealth of it's own. A few others have also left for Australia, but the much harsher climate has made it tough. Most Southerners who do stay in Australia, usually either in Western Australia or in those sufficiently “Anglo-Saxonic” places in certain other states, are typically involved in mining or ranching.]